As one of the speech marks to initiate a conversation and the barometer thatreflects people’srelation, the study of address terms is valued by linguistics,which has developed into an important field for research of pragmatics andsociolinguistics. So far, scholars at home and abroad have probed into some aspects ofaddress such as definition, classification and so on, and have conducted a certainamount of researches on address system as a whole, while few of them study the useof address terms in specific speech communities. Only Qi Huyang and Zhu Qinqin(2001) study the use of address terms by the primary and secondary school students inXuhui Distric, Shanghai, Yan Xiaopin (2002) study the address terms used by publicservants and Liu Yonghou (2007) study on the stall-holders’ addressing terms. So theaddress terms used in the specific speech communities leave much room for furtherresearch. What the paper focused belongs to address terms used in Chineseoccupational registers.Based on the Politeness theories, contextualism and the data collected byquestionnaires, this paper summarizes the general characteristics of all kinds ofChinese occupational registers. Government is taken as an example to explain it.Meanwhile the paper made a case study on the address terms of deputy superiors inthe troop to highlight the phenomenon of removing fu when addressing deputysuperiors in most of Chinese occupational registers. Appropriate terms accord withparticipants, occasion and topic express the communicative competence ofinterlocutors. So understanding the characteristic of address terms used in Chineseoccupational registers and addressing custom help interlocutors to improve thecommunicative competence and reach the communicative goals better. The papersummarizes that there are3reasons of removing fu: firstly, from phonetic aspect, fu(副) is homophone of such Chinese word “妇”(woman)，”腐”(decay) with negativemood, which hears redundant. Secondly, from cultural aspect, Chinese people valuepower and influence. It is popular to try hard to elevate other’s title, and thenremoving fu benefits speakers and hearers. Lastly, from theoretical aspect, removing fu obeys the politeness theory and Face theory which emphasize lower self to elevateand give face to others. While the special function, strict military disciplines andsolemn atmosphere of troop make it distinguish the phenomenon of removing fu.This paper consists of6chapters. Chapter One mainly focuses on the researchpurpose, motivation, significance, methodology and the framework of the essay. InChapter Two, the author sums up the previous studies from the perspective ofpragmatics, sociolinguistics and the contrast between China and Western based on theclarification of address terms’ definitions and classifications. The contribution andlimitation are pointed out at last. Chapter Three first makes an introduction ofPoliteness Principle proposed by Leech, Face Theory by Brown and Levinson,Politeness Theory, which Gu Yueguo proposed to accord with the actual contextin China, and contextualism respectively. Then, the relation between these theoriesand address terms are analyzed, together with the theoretical foundation. In ChapterFour, the universal characteristics of address terms used in all occupational registershave been concluded. Chapter Five studies the address terms for deputy superiors, andmakes a case study on the address terms for deputy superiors in the troop to highlightthe phenomenon of removing fu in other occupational registers. Chapter Sixconcludes the result, and points out the limitations and comes up with somesuggestions for the future studies.
Objective: Professor Zhang Minghe who formed his own original views and consideration has been engaged in research of rheumatic disease for many years and quite proficient in diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic disease, especially in(AS) . The study probes into the pathogenesis, mechanism and therapy of AS disease of . Methods: Reorganize formerly clinical observation material and collecte literature. Conclusion: Professor Zhang think that the lack of congenital diathesis is immanet causation, stagnation of virulent heat-evil、blood stasis in the interior in the body is the pathogenesis of AS.So for treatment of AS,he takes”cleaning away heat and toxic materials”as the main method,strengthening kidney and Du Mai,assisting promoting blood circulation to dissolve the blood stasis and eliminating pathogenic wetness to dredge meridian. It has got satisfactory effect in clinic treatment .
Up to now, the oxidation behavior ofhas been investigated based on prepared from high purity raw materials without considering the effects of . In this work, the effects of impurity kinds and contents on the lattice constant of MgAlON were studied. The relation between oxidation behavior of MgAlON and kinds and contents was explored.In this work, the dependence of the crystal lattice constant of MgAlON powders on different impurities was examined. The single-phase MgAlON was synthesized by reduction-nitridation techniques at 1550℃for 5 hours using Al2O3, MgO and Al powders as main raw materials, and Fe2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 as additives. The results show that the lattice constant of MgAlON without impurities was 0.80185nm. The lattice constants of MgAlON with 6% F2O3,5% SiO2 and 5% TiO2 were 0.79917nm, 0.79915nm and 0.79977nm respectively. The addition of impurities slightly reduced crystal lattice constant of MgAlON. Together with the results of XRD, EDS and XPS, it is confirmed that the additives Fe2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 entered into MgAlON crystal lattice as solid solution.The effects of impurities on the oxidation behavior of MgAlON were investigated emphatically. The results exhibited that the starting oxidation temperatures of MgAlON were reduced in different degree by adding different types of impurities (Fe2O3, SiO2and TiO2). The effects of impurities contents (Fe2O3:2%, 4%,6%; SiO2:3%,5%,7%; TiO2:1%,3%,5%) on the starting oxidation temperatures of MgAlON was not significant. The starting oxidation temperatures of the samples with varying SiO2 amounts were all 900℃, the same as the sample without impurities. The samples with Fe2O3 and SiO2 started to be oxidized at 850℃, 50℃lower than the sample without impurities.The temperatures at which Al2O3 started to form in the oxidation process of MgAlON were reduced equally by adding different types of impurities (Fe2O3, SiO2 and TiO2). The alumina precipitation temperatures of the samples with impurities were all 1200℃, lower than that of the sample without impurities by 200℃. The alumina formation temperatures of MgAlON with higher contents of TiO2 (3%,5%) were reduced by 300℃. The other changes in impurity contents did not produce significant effect on the alumina formation temperatures of MgAlON.Different types of impurities had significantly different effects on the complete oxidation temperature of MgAlON. The complete oxidation temperature of the sample without impurities was 1500℃. The samples containing Fe2O3 and SiO2 were oxidated completely at 1400℃, which was lower than that of the sample without imputies by 100℃. The samples with TiO2 were completely oxidized at 1300℃, which was lower than that of the sample without impuritis by 200℃. The quantity changes of added SiO2 and TiO2 did not show significant effects on the complete oxidation temperatures of MgAlON. The complete oxidation temperature of sample with 2% Fe2O3 was the same as that of the sample without impurities. The complete oxidation temperatures of MgAlON with higher quantities of Fe2O3 (4%,6%) were reduced by 100℃.Impurities exhibited varying effects on the changes of lattice constant of MgAlON in the oxidation process. In the oxidation process of the samples with SiO2 and TiO2, the positions of MgAlON diffraction peaks were shifted to high angle at lower temperatures and then to the low angle at higher temperatures. The lattice constant decreased with temperatures in the lower temperature region due to the reduction of nitrogen content, and increased gradually because the crystal structure was converted from MgAlON to MgAl2O4. The lattice constant of the samples with Fe2O3 increased with the temperature in the oxidation process, possibly due to dissolving of FeO/Fe2O3 into the MgAlON crystal lattice.The results of this work have some enlightening significance on the selection of natural raw materials for synthesis of MgAlON. That is, when considering natural raw materials to prepare MgAlON material, those with lower contents of Fe2O3, SiO2 and TiO2, particularly lower content of TiO2, should be selected in order to avoid the deterioration of the antioxidizing property of MgAlON due to the presence of impurities.
Synthesis and Properties of Hyperbranched Poly (Amide-ester) Modified by C=C and HPAE-graft-Acrylic Acid Copolymers
The hyperbranched polymers have attracted considerable attention due to its peculiar properties, such as low melt viscosity, dissolubility, non-entanglement and a large number of active end groups. Hyperbranched polymers will be applicated in many fields widely, such as the function material, the biological medicine, the painting and so on. In this paper, the macro-monomers which been prepared from hyperbranched poly(amide-ester)s(HPAE), though the way that were. Also, the HPAE-graft-acrylic acid copolymers were synthesized. All the polymers were characterized by FTIR, LC-MCD,’HNMR, TG and GPC. Finally, we study the factors of that affect the composition molecular weight distribution.In Chapter 1:The overviews of the progress in the hyperbranched polymers science were given, including the structure, capability, synthesis and application, especially, the synthesis and characters of the dendrimer-graft-linear polymers.In Chapter 2:Synthesis and characterization of . The was investigated to prepare , which contains single hydroxyl and multi-ester pendant groups. We functionalized the HPAE by so that introducing the C=C bond into the polymers. The macro-monomers, which made of a polyacrylate backbone and s side chains.Finally, we characterize the polymers by FTIR, LC-MCD, 1HNMR and TG, and measure the molecular weight and distribution by hydroxyl-value method and GPC.In Chapter 3:The study of and effective factors. The HPAE-graft-acrylic acid copolymers were produced by in solution. In this chapter, we research the effectual reaction factors who decide the composition of HPAE-graft-acrylic acid copolymers of the products mostly. According to the conclusion we can find that the solvents and the reactive temperatures are the most important factors, however, the ratio can influence the composition of the copolymers a little. But, the different initiators make the same effect to this reaction.
The hyperbolic space and the isometric group about it is the important content inthe geometry of the discrete group. Additionally the discussion on the discreteness ofthe two-generator subgroup plays an important role in researching the property of thegroup.This paper begins with whether some special geodesics intersect at one point inthe hyperbolical triangle. These special geodesics are as follows, perpendicularbisectors, midlines, perpendiculars in the hyperbolical plane. It gets three conclusionsas same as the situation in Euclidean Geometry. Applying the knowledge of pencils, itcan get some results that whether these geodesics lie in the same pencils.Then this paper gives the relationship between the positions of axes of twonon-parabolic elements that generate a discrete group, the properties including thetranslation lengths along the axes and the rotation angles. It not only gives a broadconclusion on the basis of F.W. Gehring and G.J. Martin, but also obtains the differentresults corresponding to the intersecting position and the disjoint position of two axesrespectively. According to the above conclusion, this paper considers the discretenessof the group generated by an elliptic element f and a hyperbolic element g inPSL(2,C). That is if the hyperbolic distance (f,g)satisfies with some condition,then the group f,gis discrete non-elementary.In addition, it gives this result: if two elements, the plus of whose traces is zero,generate an arithmetic figure-eight knot group or two-bridge link group, then theelements are parabolic. Using the similar method, it can consider the types of the twoelements when the trace of them is other values.At last, on the basis of the geometry of the real hyperbolic space and theholomorphic isometry group, this paper consider whether the similar theory can set upin the complex and quaternionic hyperbolic manifolds. This paper mainly researchesthe precisely invariant tubular of the boundary element applying the J rgensen’sinequality. The same arguments give the quaternionic analogue of these two results.
Based on Chengxian county Gansu province present situation of population，thePaper use kinds of math model to forecast and analysis future number and trends ofpopulation.Faced with the coming aging society of Chengxian，it is essential for us tostudy its，trends，causes，and present positive measures that cope withinfluences on societal and growth In order to reduce the negative influenceand prepare well for the aging society,The Paper consists of the five sections as follows:The first section is briefly to introduce the background and significance of thetopic selection，and the review of the related literature in domestic and overseas aswell as the thoughts and methods and introduced related concepts and indexes.The second section analyzes the present situations of total population inChengxian, studying the trend of population changing, structure and characteristic ofsex and age in past years.The third section forecasts the number of total population and aged population inChengxian. Used of kinds of math model such as comprehensive growth method, elastic coefficient method, labor demand method and average annualgrowth rate method,then analyze these forecast products.The fourth section is the , trend and characteristic of population aging inChengxian and its positive and negative impact on society and .The fifth section is the strategy of population aging in Chengxian. Several waysand measures were presented aiming at the population aging in Chengxian.
The Comparative Study on Behaviour of Unidirectional and Reciprocating Sliding Wear at Lower Number of Cycles
Numerous types of apparatus and test schemes exist in the domain of tribological experiment. As experimental results obtained may greatly differ caused by employing different experimental method even under the condition of the same experimental parameters, the importance of comparing distinct test scheme should not be disregarded. As the most universal experimental methods, the similarities and differences in wear process and mechanism between(ball-on-disc) and (ball-on-flat) are discussed in this thesis.Wear process of 45 steel and aluminium alloy 7075 was studied in different experimental method separately. Comparing the wear process and mechanism of with that of , the phenomenon that different material had distinct “sensitivity” toward experimental methods was noticed. The wear behaviour of 45 steel strongly related to the wear experiment method, on the contrary, different sliding motion had less influence to aluminium alloy 7075, as on the one hand, in , the major types of wear mechanisms of 45 steel were abrasive wear and the great differences between experimental methods were attributed to the evolving mechanism of wear debris, on the other hand, the major wear mechanism of aluminium alloy 7075 was exfoliation and different experimental method had less influence to this type of wear mechanism. In a word, the degree of influence caused by different sliding mode was determined by the type of wear mechanism. Since wear mechanism was determined by character of material, wear experimental method should be carefully considered on the basis of character of material. The result of experiment may change a lot due to using different experimental method..
Qubits, the carrier of, can not be an isolated system. The interaction of the with its environment will induce the dissipation or dephasing, and weaken its quantum coherence. As a result, it will cause the qubit collapse from a coherent superposition state to a mixed or single pure state, and lost. This process is known as . So is one of the main barriers which hold back the storage and processing of , and has become a research hotspot. When the decoherent properties of several qubit models are studied, this thesis also searches for the external driving fields to eliminate the qubits’ decoherence which is induced by their environments. These results will provide some theory guidance for the realization of the storage and processing of quantum information.Indeterminacy principle has been regarded as a source of quantum decoherence. But the most prime source of inducing the decoherence of quantum information system is the entanglement between measure apparatus and quantum systems. A qubit model which transition and decay coexist has been described by using the decoherent formal theory in this thesis. By using the Kraus operator, the density matrix of the qubit has been worked out. The analysis to the diminishment of the matrix off-diagonal elements denotes that the interaction between a qubit and its environment weakens the qubit’s coherence and evolves it from a coherent superposition state into a single pure state.The environment can be treated as a when the interaction of the quantum system with its environment is very weak (otherwise they are not distinguishable). This thesis lays its emphasis on calculating the off-diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix of the qubit in the nonresonant model, the intensity dependent <WP=6>coupling J-C model and the degenerate two-photon J-C model with Stark effect by using perturbation theory and tracing over . The properties of their decoherence are obtained by analyzing the decay of the off-diagonal elements. At the same time, the thesis gets the external driving fields which are used to eliminate the qubits’ decoherence. This makes it possible for these qubits to be using in quantum information systems. The decoherence of the nonresonant model is independent of the transition frequency of the qubit because the nonresonant interaction doesn’t induce the transition between the two linear independent states of the qubit. The qubit’s decoherence is determined by the frequencies of the oscillators of the and the average photon numbers of the optical field. For the intensity dependent coupling J-C model and the degenerate two-photon J-C model with Stark effect, the interactions directly induce the transition between the two linear independent states, so the decoherence of these models are dependent on the transition frequency of the qubit yet. The qubit’s decoherent properties are dependent on the coupling intensity in the intensity dependent coupling J-C model, and the Stark shift have great effect on the qubit’s decoherence in the degenerate two-photon J-C model with Stark effect. With the discussing of the qubit’s decoherence, we also search for external driving fields to eliminate their decoherence and get the external driving fields’ restriction equations. The studies indicate that not only the decoherence of the qubits but also the external driving fields which are used to eliminate the decoherence both tie up with the interaction types of the qubit with the thermal reservoir, the frequencies of the oscillators of the thermal reservoir and the average photo numbers of the optical field.This thesis is organized as following: In the part of introduction, we simply describe the background of quantum information and the significances of the study to quantum decoherence. In chapter 1, the <WP=7>quantum states, qubits and thermal reservoir have been introduced. In chapter 2, classical coherenc
From1956to1966,thelasted for tenyears due to the divergences between the Communist Party ofChina (CPC) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)in ideology,inward and outward policies and the nationalinterests. The great was seriously exerting an influenceon how CPC judged the international situation and understoodCPSU and socialism, and then the domestic situation. Thatinternational opposition to revisionism and domesticpreventing revisionism interacted caused the Magnification ofClass Struggle (MOCS) in the ten years. This thesis consistsof four parts and the main contents are following.The first part elaborates the process of the . Thedebate was like a symphony, rising and falling, but total trendwas deterioration. The Alliance split. Theintroduction was from the twentieth National Congress of CPSUin1956to the Moscow Conference in1957. Thediversity-enlarging stage was from1958to the second MoscowConference in1960. The contradiction-sharpening stage wasfrom the twenty-second National Congress of CPSU in1961to early in March1963.The public debating stage was from late inMarch1963to metaphase in October1964. The ending was fromNovember1964to the twenty-third National Congress of CPSU in1966.The second part indirectly analyses what conditions thedebate provided for MOCS. The debate caused theirrelationship go from good to bad,and CPC seriously estimatedthe international situation and more and more emphasized on thethreat of war,thereby,it was the psychological condition. CPCcriticized that CPSU created and believed in the theory named”San He Liang Quan”,which mainly advocated a national party,anational state,peaceful coexistence,peaceful transition,andpeaceful contest,then,it aroused the mode of thinking ofrevolutionary party for CPC, and CPC depended more and morestrongly on the mode of thinking of revolution and thephilosophy of struggle. On the evaluation of Stalin, CPCchanged from opposition to the individual worship to agreementwith it, so Mao Zedong’s Consciousness of MOCS could have adecisive influence on all the thoughts of CPC,and Excessiveconcentration of power within the party made it hard to reversethe radical trend of thought. These were chief focuses of thedebate. And secondary items made CPC’s recognition about CPSU easily deviate from objectivity and rationality.The third part directly demonstrates how the debategradually affected MOCS. Throughout the debate, CPC’s attitudetoward CPSU and Khrushchev’s revisionism developed radicallyfrom the level of the phenomenon into rising to a higher planeof principle and two-line struggle and digging up its root: fromdiscarding two weapons which were Stalin and Lenin to rightopportunism, then to contemporary revisionism, finally to therevisionist central committee of the party. One need not lookfar for a lesson as the saying goes, so MOCS was on schedulefor CPC. MOCS followed in the debate’s footsteps and was dividedinto five steps. Firstly, the Third Plenary Session of theEighth CPC Central Committee and CPC’s Eighth National Congresssecond session changed CPC’s Eighth National Congress’scorrect judgment about the main contradiction. Secondly,Mount Lu session in1959extended class struggle to theparty.Thirdly, the Tenth Plenary Session of the Eighth CPCCentral Committee stressed on class struggle and made theparty’s radical perception on class struggle furthersystematized. Fourthly, CPC carried out the socialism trainingmovement and ideological criticism nationwide. Fifth, from theend of1964to the beginning of1965,there were some difference between Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi, and Mao Zedong mainlyprevented revisionism from the central committee of the party.The fourth part summarized some experience and lesson.Don’t argue about the ideological diversities. By rule and linejudge the theme of the times. Respect the diversity of thesocialist development model. Correctly solve class struggleand inner-party struggle in socialist society. Persist indemocratic centralism.
Research on Integration Design Method of Mechanical Product Systems Based on Similarity Unit Substitution
In this paper, by using the principles of systems science and similarity, the of product systems based on is established. The objective is to solve the problem of in CAD process, supporting modification design and creation design.The fundamental concepts of and systems design are presented. The steps of based on and system based on units are discussed. The modeling method of similarity product case prototypes and bases are studied. By using the similarity measurement method in similarity , the similarity degrees between the design purpose and the similarity cases are determined, thus the similarity search is realized. The most similar case is used as the design prototype. Then with function decomposition and unit split, the chief function units and the assistant units are all obtained. By using technology and modification design of each function unit, system integration and whole characteristic revise are preceded. When the design request is satisfied, the design process is accomplished.