Study on Reproductive Allocation and Reproductive Characteristics of Echinochloa Crusglli (L.) Beauv under Different Single Treatments
Reproductive allocation (RA), also called reproductive configuration, refers to the ratio for plant’s reproduction of assimilation resources in one year. Reproductive allocation is one of the hot research topics in plant reproductive ecology. In recent years, it studies concentrated in herbs, especiallyof clonal plants become to one of the hot research topics, but it is still rarely reported in weeds. is an annual herb of gramineae of Echinochloa crusglli, a typical clonal plant, is one of the malignant weeds in the paddy field and hard to remove. To control weed is essentially to control reproductive, therefore the study on and reproductive characteristics of the with important significance only in theory, but also in practice.With four different single treatments (mowing, weedicide, nitrogen, intraspecific competition) processed . The biomass of its various organs,clump height, tiller number, thousand-grain weight were determinated in 3 periods.Analysed the characteristics of biomass allocation and the dynamic changes of the quantitative characters of reproductive tiller.The results indicated that:(1) With the increase of mowing intensities, the biomass (dry weight) of per plant and organs showed Y1> Y2> CK> Y3 trends, with significant differences among treatments; the biomass allocation ratio of root gradually increase,but diffent in stem, the biomass allocation proportion of reproductive organs reflected Y1> Y2 CK> Y3. From flowering stage to grain filling stage, nutrients elements (N, P, K) transfer from vegetative organs to reproductive organs, it was in favor of nutrients (N, P, K) accumulation in moderate mowing. Tiller number per plant and plant clipping intensity was positively correlated; moderate mowing treatment was a turning point in the reproductive strategy.(2) By weedcide treatments, biomass allocation ratio did not change significantly in vegetative organs; biomass allocation ratio decreased in flower, biomass allocation ratio in fruit was significantly higher than other treatment.under C5 treatment N content showed a downward trend in all organs, while P, K content showed first increased and then decline trend; it was in favor of N accumulation of Echinochloa crusglli (L.) beauv.under high concentration of weedicide With the increase of herbicide concentration, strains of cluster height, inflorescence length and spike weight showed a downward trend; spike length and reproductive allocationⅠ,Ⅱof Echinochloa crusglli (L.) beauv. promoted under Cl treatment;the number of tillers classification features all had a larger coefficient of variation, of which the spike weight of the largest coefficient of variation.(3) and the biomass (dry weight) for per plant increased with the increase of nitrogen; biomass allocation ratio of root, stem decreased, the proportion of leaf biomass allocation increased, It’sreproductive allocation was significantly higher than other treatments under low nitrogen and high nitrogen conditions,. With the extension of Echinochloa crusglli growth stages, nutrients allocation showed the ratio gradually decreased vegetative in organs root, leaf; nutrients(N, P, K) allocation ratio increases in reproductive organ. With the increase of nitrogen, strains of cluster high at plant height, tillers per plant showed a increasing trend; and the reproductive characteristics of the relevant indicators (inflorescence length, spike weight, RA I, RA II) increased first and then decreased.(4)Under the conditions of intraspecific competition, from flowering to grain filling stage, the biomass of vegetative organs decreased, but increased in the reproductive organs; expressed as the ratio of biomass decreased in roots, stems increased trends in leaves, fruits; Nutrient elements (N、P、K) conents for per plant increased,which N, K elements increased in the root,and reproductive organs, while the stems and leaves decreased, P element content in vegetative organs decline in a significant increase in the reproductive organs. With increased competition of Echinochloa crusglli(L.) beauv, the biomass and plant weight showed a downward trend; the root biomass ratio decreased, stem did not change significantly, leaf showed increased in turn; each element ratio of vegetative organs had no significant changes, reproductive organ had highest allocation in the M2. With the increase in the density of Echinochloa crusglli(L.) beauv, plants show an increase of high cluster, number of tillers showed a decreasing trend, while inflorescence length at first increased and then decreased; reproductive allocationⅠ,Ⅱcoefficient of variation with the increase of planting density of Echinochloa crusglli(L.) beauv in turn showed an increasing trend.(5)Under different treatment conditions, tiller height and inflorescence length of Echinochloa crusglli(L.) beauv. was positively correlated, was not correlatedwith the reproductive growth rates. tiller height and total biomass, nutritional biomass, reproductive biomass were significantly positively correlated with reproductive allocationⅠ,Ⅱ, was no correlation between reproductive allocation, it had a certain correlatiodealing only in Y3, M1, C1, C2 treatment conditions,and showed a positive correlation.
The paper investigates Manfredo, n historian of , and his research of . Being one of the most influential figures in architectural of the 20th century, has plenty of productions. And being the director of architectural of IUAV, he combines the academic years and exhibitions to the academic courses. The integration of his individual study into the collective study of international teams pushes the study of to a new height.The paper aims to present a panorama of Tafuri’s research of , so to fill the gap and offer new visions for the present situation of research in China.The paper is made up of three chapters and an appendix.The first chapter, “Tafuri’s life”, taking n’s political and context of 20th century as background, traces the forming and maturing process of Tafuri’s thought, providing a setting for understanding his research.The second chapter, “Tafuri’s research of Renaissance”, explores Tafuri’s achievements and researching methods by taking his principal productions of Renaissance as clue, so to exhibit his research’s nature of coherence and improvement step by step.The third chapter, “Interpreting the Renaissance: Princes, Cities, Architects”, elaborates the last book before Tafuri’s death. This important book just has its English version in 2006 after 10 years’ translating. By introducing the contents of the whole book and by reading Tafuri’s “Introduction”, the paper further shows the viewpoints and methods of his research of Renaissance.The appendix offers my own translation of the last book’s “Introduction” from the English version.
In this paper for the” Jingkerhan” led Ujimqin hero story motif and Mongolian heroic epic motif system comparison, and demonstrateinheritance situation. Also according to”Jingkerhan” in the title and the “Janger” similar situation, further interpretation of the”Jingkerhan”origin and the history relations of the”Janger”.Thesis consists of introduction, text, conclusion, references, appendices and other five parts. The introduction by the selected topic reason, the research goal, the predecessors’research, research methods and research significance. The text consists of three chapters.The first chapter, first of all by Ujimqin hero story motif in the chain motif and Heisig lattice points of the Mongolian heroic epic a detailed comparison of the motif, and found that the motif similarity is more than60%. Thus demonstrated that inheritance situation. Second, according to the geographical location of with Ujimqin neighboring Abuga, Sunid, Jarud-Horchin, bairin, and across the territory of Mongolia state-owned”gus’s”, led by the”Janger”of the heroic epic to still have inheritance case, thus constitutes the Ujimqin epic of the external environment, this further demonstrates the Ujimqin epic inheritance situation and “jingkerhan “is the “epic” rather than a hero of the story. Third, the Ujimqin” jingkerhan” basic motif and its neighborhood in epic motif and Kalmyk, Xinjiang and Mongolia a comparative study on the “Janger” motif,demonstrated that the”jingkerhan”is not derived from the neighborhood epic with it or formed by the influence of late, but is derived from the ” Janger “. Phonetic study also demonstrates the ” jingkerhan ” of the word “jingkerhan”is another name for the”Janger”. Dependent on the”Janger”from to mouthpiece Formal science to demonstrate the ” jingkerhan” is a prose the Janger.The second chapter, through the”jingkerhan”outside Ujimqin epic plot, description, and Xinjiang, Kalmyk, Mongolia the ” Janger ” often occurs in the plot, description and Ujimqin in neighborhood of epic plot and the description of contrast, Ujimqin other some epic is also similar to the ” Janger “, this further demonstrates the ” jingkerhan ” is derived from the Janger “.Specifically Ujimqin epic in certain circumstances, after the “Janger “plot appears only in Xinjiang, such as do not appear in Kalmyk, Mongolia the “Janger” and Ujimqin epic in adjacent areas.Thus, we can conclude Ujimqin epic and Oirat the Janger has a very close relationship.In the third chapter, through the interpretation of Ujimqin oral history and recorded in historical literature, initially Ujimqin Mongolian to meet in the west of Altai,with Oirat Mongolian belong to a clan or living together, then moved to Hanggai mountain, late15th century in the early16th century from hanggai cover mountain seats to desert south, then analysis the Ujimqin epics and the history of the relationship between the ” Janger “. some plot will not appear in the ” Janger ” of Mongolia. Can only appear in Oirat the “Janger”, conclusion:the early Ujimqin Mongolian have sung in the customs and they kept the Janger from Oirat inherited from the “Janger”To sum up, Ujimqin not only has the custom of singing epic, and ” jingkerhan” and other epic is in Ujimqin Mongolian to meet in the Altai region epic inherit the “Janger” legacy. Then the “Janger” is not only a Oirat Xinjiang region in Inner Mongolia Ujimqin and other regions.
The load forecasting is an important routine for power dispatch department. Especially with the foundation and the development of power market it will bring into play a more and more important role. It’s precision directly influences power system’s security, profit and quality. Therefore, how to improve the forecasting precision is the emphasis on the study of load forecasting.Combined Power Loads Forecast is an important research direction because it can reduce the risk of load forecasting. The paper first Research the existingmodel, including the optimal model and non-optimal combination forecasting model. Existing combination forecasting model can deal with the problem of weight distribution, but there are some unreasonable. For example, they can’t deal with the fact that the impact of different history load to the forecasting load is not the same. It also can’t save the problem that different forecasting methods have different contribution to the final forecasting load at different time. After studying the existing forecasting model, the paper give out an abstract optimal combination forecasting model and prove that existing models is concrete examples of the abstract model.In order to improve the shortcomings that existing models can not deal with the changeable impact of history load to forecasting load, the paper instance a new model base on the abstract model. In the new model it make different history load have different weight. Then it gives out two methods to calculate the weight. In the first method the weight depend on the date. In the second method the weight depend on the forecasting error. It sorts the errors and then determines the weight according the sequence results.In order to improve the shortcomings that existing models can not deal with the changeable impactions of different forecasting methods at different time, the paper give out a matrix. So the existing model weight matrix is a special matrix that very line in the matrix is the same. In the new model the matrix is calculated as follow. It first makes very line in the matrix the same, then it adjust very line according forecasting error.The paper presents the final model that deal with the two unreasonable. Results show that the model improved the prediction accuracy.
The view that design quality is the source of product quality has been gradually recognized by more and more enterprises.Then,more and more pervasive attention has been paid on product’design quality,meanwhile,much resource has been devoted to look for the effective approach to improve product’design quality.Paper summarizes four research approaches to improve design quality which are existed.However,these four approaches utterly based on the same hypothesis,which is that the information to guarantee and improve design quality is definite, the expression of information is unified and easy-understanding, collection and communication is easily realized.But as far as the current conditions is concerned,this hypothesis is hardly tenable.Without relative information’s support,however advanced the methods to improve design quality which the above four approaches mentioned are, the implementation effect will not be as obvious as expected.Therefore,paper presents the research approach that design quality is guaranteed and improved from the aspect of information.The concrete research measures are as followed:expand the sources of design quality information by means of defining design quality information as the data which is beneficial to improving design quality;plan design quality information by the technology methods of information resource planning;build the integrated model of design quality information;organize and express design quality information with unified formal;provide relative information support for designers whoever he belongs to itsor not by intellectively collecting and storing design quality information.Firstly,paper definitely defines the design quality information,points out the research range of design quality information,and then presents a research approach to guarantee design quality from the aspect of information by building integrated model of design quality information.Secondly,paper analysises the function and data demand of integrated model of design quality information by means of the technology method which information resource planning mentions,and then establishes the system structure of this model. Thirdly,paper makes an emphasis on the key technolodies,i.e. the technology for organizing and expressing design quality information based on XML;the technology for integrating design quality information based on Multi-agent system. Finally,paper introduces prototype system developing and realization and verifies it by an instance.
Helwingia chinensis is an under-exploited plant with ornamental, culinary and medicinal values in theCornaceae family. This species garners widespread interest because its flowers and fruits in are unusallyattached to the leaf’s central vein. Combining field observations with optical microscopy of paraffin slices, Iconductedand leaf anatomy studies on Helwingia chinensis. The results are as follows:(1) The experimental materials were obtained from Wuhan. Helwingia chinensis flowers appeared atthe end of March as buds, began to blossom in early April, and withered by mid-May.(2) Having differentiated from the nucellar epidermis, archesporial cells then divide to form periperalcells and sporogenous cells. The subepidermal sporogenous cell adjacent to the micropylar end developsdirectly into the megaspore mother cell. Integument tapetum and commitment bead plate appear duringovule development. The megaspore mother cell subsequently goes through two consecutive meioses,forming first a dyad and then a tetrad. The tetrad is arranged in a linear or a T-shaped fashion. The threemegaspores near the micropylar end udergo programmed cell death, leaving only the megaspore near thechalazal end functional. This megaspore proceeds to become the single-celled embryo sac, which furtherdivides into the mature embryo sac that contain7cells and8nuclei. Embryo sac development of HelwingiaChinensis Batal belongs to the polygonum type, with an inferior ovary, a single ovule integument, and anoverhanging placenta.(3) The anther parietal is formed by circumferential differentiation of protodermal andsubprotodermal cells, as well as parenchymal cells adjacent to the sporogenous cells. The primarysporogenous cells divide into the secondary sporogenous cell, which becomes the microspore mother cell with a typical simultaneous cytokinesis. The mature pollen grain is2-celled with3colpi.(4) The petiole of Helwingia chinensis shows the secondary structure of the dicotyledon stem. Thevascular tissue in the petiole is concentrated within a single bundle containing pith. The vascular bundlesplits into two parts along the medullary rays as it nears the base of the inflorescence, extending respectivelyinto the peduncle and the leaf’s central vein. The inflorescence is attached to the median or basal stretch ofthe leaf’s central vein.(5) Floral embryonic development of Helwingia chinensis is similar to that of Cornus officinalis.
To remit environment problem, late-model no-Freon (Zr-rich PZT Electro-caloric material) was investigated and prepared. Oriented Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05)O3 (PZT) thin films with rare earth–La3+ dopants were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by sol-gel technique. Effects of different Thermal treatment methodology on orientation of PZT thin films and different orientation on Electrocaloric of PZT thin films were investigated systematically.Mechanism of oriented growth ofwas analyzed. Relevant theoretics of oriented growth of was put forward. Different anneal technics and cycstallographic texture of were compared. (100)-oriented Zr-rich PZT thin films was gained by anneal at 650℃for 5min, and (100)-oriented Zr-rich PZT thin films was gained by anneal at 600℃for 3min. Otherwise along with increase of pyrolyzing temperature, (100)-orientation of Zr-rich PZT thin films increase and peaked at 425℃.Based on the analysis of SEM and AFM, an obvious difference in crystallization of PZT thin films with La doping was observed. There was no obvious diffusion and the combine between Pt electrode and PZT thin films and grains with small size and uniform distribution are shown in PZT with 0.5 mol% La3+ dopant. More La3+ dopant was, more large grain was and small degree of coarseness was.Electrocaloric effects of different oriented PZT and PLZT thin films were investigated systematically. It was shown that Electrocaloric of Oriented Zr-rich PZT thin films excelled polycrystalline PZT thin films. max of ElectrocaloricΔT of Oriented Zr-rich PZT thin films was 29K, while max of ElectrocaloricΔT of polycrystalline Zr-rich PZT thin films was 12K. It was also shown that electrocaloric of (111)-oriented Zr-rich PLZT thin films excelled (100)-oriented Zr-rich PZT thin films. La dopant enhanced Electrocaloric of Zr-rich PZT thin films. Rare earth Yb mainly occupied A-site in PZT lattice, the rank of long-range order of ferroelectric structure. Thereby stabilization of ferroelectric structure was restrained, because substitution of La3+ was the no-equivalence charge substitution, charge balance of cycstallographic texture was destroied and stabilization of antiferroelectric structure. All of these were prone to increase dispersion of field and enforce electrocaloric effects of Zr-rich PZT thin films.
The Countermeasures of Coordinate Developing Land Conversion and Deagriculturalization of Surplus Agricultural Laborers
Land conversion and deagriculturalization of surpluslaborers have their own precondition. The degree which can impacts their and development have to be appreciated directly or indirectly. Then, is there a certain critical mass for each of them? What level does china being? How does it influences the and development? How does it will be? What is the correlation between them? Is there the best proportion relationship? If it exists, what level should it be? What phase does it at now? What kind of measures should be taken to achieve the best state? The discussion and research of these issues would affect the rural development and the urbanization process in China, and even affect stability and the harmonious development of the country. So, I try to do some research about the land conversion and the deagriculturalization of surplus laborers basing on the strategic perspective. This research is based on the current of land conversion and the deagriculturalization of surplus laborers in China. I explore their relationship through the theory and empirical analysis, and looking for reasons for the incoherence between them. Then I give advice on how to coordinated develop them.The coordinate developing of land conversion and deagriculturalization of surplus agricultural laborers be studed because of there is some problems during the urbaniz-ation. To achive this goal, if we should slow down the speed of land conversion or accelerate the deagriculturalization of surplus agricultural laborers. Futhermore, what should the government do to realize it?In the first part, I analysis the background including the social background of macroeconomic operation, the present research all of the world and the significance, goal and method.I establish the mathematical model to find evaluation standard, reveals the stage that our country has been, and then measure their coordination degree, then analysis and evaluation them through the measuring results of the measurement model. Then I describe the main problems in land conversion and deagriculturalization of surplus agricultural laborers in the second part. And offered that the core problem between them is that the land excess transferred and the lagging of deagriculturalization of surplus agricultural laborers is coexisting. There are four kind of situation about the inconsonant development of land and labors have been described.I chose three countries as typical cases, there are United States, Japan and British. I review their urbanization process, find out the main characteristics and summarizing the experience to enlighten us to the coordinated development of land conversion and deagriculturalization of surplus agricultural laborers.In the last part, I give some advice to deal with the incoherence of land conver-sion and deagriculturalization of surplus agricultural laborers. That is transfer the rural labors as soon as possible and control the speed of land conversion during our industrialization and urbanization.
The development of modern medicine has entered the age of evidence-basedmedicine. How to combine the best scientific experimental evidence and clinical. Howto makedecisions and to correctly use the resources under the reasonableconsuming conditions in a best time frame. These all need to rely on laboratorymedicine. Laboratory medicine is one of the fastest growing discipline in recent decades.laboratory medicine with the development of technological progress and medicineprogress. It’s working condition has developed from the most primitive manual testoperation to current , information technology, quality control andstandardization. The department functions of laboratory has evolved from singleclinical specimens to not only detect but also to provide advice, participate in thediagnosis, independent research and teaching, etc. All this makes the Laboratory formeda set of high-tech equipment, advanced technology as one of the modern department.China’s modern hospital laboratory has begun to take shape after decades ofdevelopment since the foundation of the state. However, many of the problems areexposed in nearly20years of ultra-high-speed, large-scale construction. Main show isin the following respects: redundant construction serious, waste of a larger human andmaterial resource, lack of construction standards. From a architectural design’s point ofview, clarifying the clinical laboratory scale and space standards, making modulardesign and combination are essential to solve these problems by contrast the practice ofhospital building at home and abroad.Based in the theory of architectural design and laboratory medicine, combiningmodular design theory, this paper systematically analyses the relevant data andrelationship of various functional departments in laboratory. And it analyzes the relatedconstruction standards at home and abroad. Through field survey and questionnairesurvey, a thorough and systematic analysis of clinical laboratory design is presented inthis paper. This article attempts to change the status of lacking efficacy data whendesigning clinical laboratory, to improve the current “disorder” state all aspects oflaboratory, and to made up for the lack of forward-looking, flexible design theory. Hopeto contribute to consummate laboratory modular design system.Firstly, preliminary data of laboratory medicine were summarized on the basis ofunderstanding development of laboratory medicine and the current research status of labotatory design at home and abroad. Basically have the contents of the followingrespects: the classification of clinical laboratory;the main operating parameters andcapacity determinants of clinical laboratory; china’s general hospital hierarchies. And itincludes the task, carrying out inspection items, departments’ set requirements, staffing,equipment ‘s requirements, scale of housing and area requirements of clinicallaboratory in all levels of general hospital. On the ground, the paper discussesmodularization design separately for the following aspects: Unit,Biochemical Laboratory Unit, Immune Laboratory Unit, Microorganism LaboratoryUnit, PCR Laboratory Unit, HIV Laboratory Unit and Specimen Sampling Unit. Finally,under the premise of determining a single module of various functional modules, theclinical laboratories of different graded hospitals are formed by the selection andintegration of the modules in order to meet the need of different scale of hospital.
Gone with the wind was written by Margaret Mitchell in 1936. Once published, the novel immediately caused a great sensation in the world. It has ever reached sales of 50,000 a day and 2 million copies a year. However, critic comments on it varies, some people think it is a great unrivaled master pieces, others think it is but a popular novel. But I think it is biased to define it as the popular literature only from description and position. Why is this novel still attractive to the readers in half a century? Why is a selfish, full of cunning and philistine character still accepted and loved? I think the reason is not only because the writer has shaped the image of the Dixie chicks Scarlett O’Hara, from a beautiful and noble girl before the outbreak of the civil war to a bourgeois women who didn’t yield to compromise to life after the war, but also because he has grasped the pulse of the southerners’sprit in the era of reform–the northern American spirit was penetrating for the southerners’.The civil war was broken out after the American had first accomplished the industrial revolution. North American capitalist economy developed rapidly. But the south still kept the backward growing. The American broke out the civil war due to an unbalanced development. The civil war not only destroyed the southern material world, but also brought new spirit–the American spirit. When the romantic and unrealistic values of the south are increasingly bind the development, the southern need a new spirit of capitalism and the new values which guided their actions.In order to understand internal causes of the popularity of Gone with the Wind, this article just uses”American spirit”as a breakthrough. And this article will analyze the influence of American’s spirit on the south from analyzing the details and characters. When people’s environment for survival changed, they were confronted with only two roads, adapt to it or run its course. It is better to change positively instead of being forced to choose. It is just because Scarlett, as a new southern bourgeois, saw the actual benefits changes would bring about that she consciously struggled with the tradition.All in all, the American spirit is not only a concept but also reflects deeply the bourgeois spirit world. If we want to get a real understand of the Gone with Wind, we must study it further.