The main pay layers in Daqing oilfield are thick and seriously non-homogenous. Consequently the high permeable zones forms in the thich layers due to long term water flooding development, which results in the problem of low-efficient water-recycling. At present, it’s a effective method to plug the high permeable zones with chemical agents.To meet the need for plugging, a systemic investigation on the up-to-date advances of water plugging and profile adjustment technology was carried out, based on which the diverting mechanism of fluid flow and distorting particles flow inside the layers was studied. After working on mechanism research and using the physical simulation models of one, two, three-dimension, the mechanism of fluid flow diverting inside the layers to improve the water flooding development was systemically studied. The performance features of profile adjustment agent along with its movement inside the layers are recognized.The plugging capacity, anti-flushing and flowing colloidization performance is studied in labs. The recogzization technology for high permeable zones and dominant fluid flow channels in the flushed thick layers is developed. The optimization design for fluid flow diverting inside layers and the related effect avaluation methods are studied. In addition, optimization decision-making software and the traditional numerical simulation software are further improved, in which a flowline simulator is created and used. Another software for avaluating the results is designed.Physically, a kind of new zwitterion polymer and the composite profile adjustment system are developed. A pliable diverting agent, as a part of the system, is developed, which adopts polymer gel as plugging agent for high permeable zones. With the diverting agent the fluid agent can be diverted into low permeable zones, thus it improves flooding efficiency in thich layers.The technology has been experimented in 20 wells with polymer gel system. After treatment a good result was obtained in the connecting production wells. The research provides a successful reference to the application of polymer gel system for plugging high permeable zones in thick layers.
As a kind of quick computing method, the theory of multi-grid method is based on that grid can eliminate the wave length error corresponding grid step size. Using iterating method, this method solve equation group which come from the dispersing partial differential equation group.The main applying domains of multi-grid method include simulating electrostatic field, fluid medium, wave field, and so on. This method has little application in the domain of forward and inverting modeling of geophysics. In this article, I do some research about the application of this method in the forwarding modeling of electric method.On the basis of analyzing a lot of literature, I bring forward a kind of unequal interval dispersing method to disperse the geophysical model. This method applies tightening grid closing to the anomalous body, and usual grid apart from anomalous body. I also bring forward the choosing of interpolating and confining operator, and so on. The interpolating and confining operator of the unequal interval dispersing geophysical model are stereotyped .And the program codes for poission equation are written in C environment.These entire jobs can make the multi-grid method viable and convenience in the forward modeling of electric method. I believe it can improve iterating speed greatly.
Chitosan was chemically modified in different ways to probe their properties when used in soaping agents for reactive dyeing.The experiments showed that chitosan derivations(N, O-CMCTS & NAOC)could remove effectively the loose color in the reactive dyeing to increase the soaping effect in reactive dyeing.Both of N,O-CMCTS and NAOC had good water-solubility and resistance to hardness of water.The first work of this paper is measuring physical properties of chitosan.Degree of deacetylation(DD)of chitosan determined by acid base titration is about 83%.The MW of chitosan by viscometry is about 1.0×10~5.The effect between chitosan derivatives and hydrolyzed reactive dyes was also studied.The result showed that the stability of micelles composed by NAOC and hydrolyzed reactive dyes was sensitive to its concentration.The soaping effect of both derivatives could hardly be affected by increasing their concentration due to the balance between chitosan derivatives and hydrolyzed reactive dyes.At the same time the conditions affect on the soaping effect of N,O-CMCTS and NAOC,such as the existence of inorganic salt and alkaline, complexation with anionic/nonionic surfactants,have been discussed in detail.The result shows that NAOC had stronger salt-resistance than N,O-CMCTS;the complexation of N, O-CMCTS/NAOC and nonionic surfactant had slightly better soaping effect than that when used separately;while the soaping effect of NAOC was remarkably removed by complexation with anionic surfactant.At last,the concentration of chitosan derivatives,the soaping temperature,time,and pH,et al.were studied when used in soaping agents for reactive dyeing respectively.On the base of experience of above experiment,the reaction conditions of chitosan derivations were systematically investigated through orthogonal design,and then the best conditions were found.N, O-CMCTS:0.50 g/L,90℃,20min,pH=10;NAOC:0.250 g/L,90℃,20min, pH=9.Compared with one of market soaping agents,N,O-CMCTS and NAOC could raise the friction degree and soaping degree by about 0.5 degree.
Studies on Fermentation and Antibacterial Characteristics of Compounded Ferments in the Imitated Mares Milk
Eleven strains of Lactic acid bacteria and four strains of Yeasts isolated from samples of koumiss collected from heardman,s house in Inner Mongolia were studied. Three restore ferments compounded from the same area’s sample and three crossing ferments compounded from the different area’s samples were obtained. The lactose contents of three kinds of imitated mare’s milk (P1:6.0g/100ml, P2:6.5g/100ml and P3:7.0g/100ml) produced by mixing of whole cow’s milk and demineraled whey at proper proportion were similar to that of mares’ milk. Through 72h fermentation by two restore ferments, results suggested four kinds of whey showed antibacterial property.But there were not significant differences of nature of antibacteria among them. Considering cost, two kinds of imitated mare’s milk (P1, P2) were chosen for further study. Inhibit property of three restore ferments and three crossing ferments were screened under the selected culture ( P1 , P2 ) , with culturing temperature of 28 ℃ ~30 ℃. Two restore ferments (a1, a3) and two crossing ferments (b2, b3) were identified from the six ferments. Then through changing culturing temperature to 37 ℃, two crossing ferments (b2, b3) with optimum antibacterial activity were obtained. Study on their inhibit property indicated that the greatest antibacterial activity showed during 48h in P1 by the two crossing ferments fermentation, and showed during 18h~22h in P2.The antibacterial activity of four kinds of whey were affected significantly by concentration, temperature and pH value. The thicker of whey, the stronger their antibacterial activity changed. As pH increasing, the higher temperature, the more the losses of antibacterial activity.
Fluorine is the most negative-electronic element,So negative charges gathered around fluorine atoms and electron cloud covered densely in polymers. That the neighboring fluorine atoms repel mutually make the fluorine atoms which connect with the main chain of the fluorine-containing polymers spiral-shaped distribution along the zigzag carbon-carbon chain. The radius of fluorine atom is extremely small,so the main chain protected well. The fluorine-carbon bond of the fluorine-containing polymer is short so the bond energy is very big. The polarizability of fluorine atom is low. Therefore,the fluorine-containing polymers have many special performances such as the thermo stability,the chemical stability and the weather-resistant,the low surface energy,the non-adherence,chemistry corrosiveness resistant,the water-repellency, and so on.The fluorine-containing acrylate was synthesized by hexafluoropropylene trimer,HEMA and other monomers on the condition of tri-ethylamine (NEt3)’s existence in this thesis. The fluorine-containing emulsion was copolymerized with this special fluorine-containing acrylate, BA, MMA, AA. The Fluorine-containing emulsion was stable. And the stability of this emulsion and the film’s water-repellency are researched.With tri-ethylamine (NEt3)’s existence,FNEMA was synthesized by directly mixed-reaction of C9F18 and HEMA. In this process, this is no solvent.
Preparation and Characterization of Diamond-like Carbon Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Technique
Diamond-like carbon films(DLC) have many excellent properties, including high wear resistance, low friction coefficient, good thermal stability, good optics capability, high electrical resistance and good biocompatibility, which make it have great prospect in many fields. Liquid phase method is a hotspot in research of diamond-like carbon films, and compare to gas phase method it is a latter technique. Liquid phase method has some virtues, including low deposition temperature, good repetition of experiment, large area proparation and advantageous industrialization. So, it is necessary to do some exploring work in this way.In this experiment, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on Si(100) and ITO-glass. The technique of this experiment was different from traditional liquid phase method.①DLC films were deposited on the two kinds substrates by invariable pressure and variety pressure.②DLC films were also deposited on Si(100) which was set as anode by variety pressure technique.The characters of films, including element, configuration, appear of surface and electrics capability, were analysed after experiment. First, element analysis was done by EPMA, the result showed that the films were composed by carbon; second, the configuration was analysed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, and it was proved that the carbon films were a-C:H; third, the appear of surface was pictured by optics microscope and SEM and AFM, and the result showed that the appear of DLC films on ITO was more better than it on Si(100); last, the higher than 10~8Ωcm~2 resistance was done by EIS analysis, the result indicated that the DLC films were good erosion resistance layers in chemical liquid.In this article, the mechanism of electrodeposition of DLC films was deduced again. The anode side and the cathode side equations, which were coincide with the phenomenon of experiment and the Raman and FTIR spectrum, were presumed
There is abundant naphthenic crude oil in China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC), which can be utilized as the optimal stock to produce the lube base oil. Because the distillate oil has high acid number, it brings many negative effects to the production and the performance of the lube oil. Meanwhile, the naphthenic acid is a very important and valuable raw material that can be used in many areas of the industry processes and the daily life. At present, the way to decrease the acid number is alkali washing-electronic field refining, but there some disadvantages such as the emulsification formation of the oil and water, the generation of the sediment of alkali and serious pollution to environment. Due to various disadvantages present in the way of conventional deacidification the”green solvent”-ionic liquid and the way of hyrodeacidification were used as the alternative methods to remove the naphthenic acid from the distillate oil in this study.In this paper, the [bmim]OH was firstly selected as the deacidification agent from [bmim]BF4, [bmim]OH and [emim]OH. At the same time, the alcohol was chosen as the assistant agent by evaluating the assistant deacidification agent. In the experiment, the No. 2 vacuum cut of cnooc was our sample oil. The optimal operation conditions were obtained by the experiment of the factor influencing the deacidification effect. The result indicated that the removal rate is higher than 76% when the concentration of depickling solvents is 0.1g.ml-1. The ration of solvent to oil is 1:1, the depickling temperature is 40℃and the reaction time is 50min.On the basis of the deacidification experiment, the callback research was carried out as well. Mainly study the hydrolyzing callback and the acidification callback. The experiment indicated that acidification callback has the advantages of the high acid number, short reaction time. In hydrodeacidifiction research, RL-1 was the experimental catalyst and the experimental stock were the atmospheric cut 3 and the vacuum cut 3 distillate oil, the influential factors were decided in partial pressure of hydrogen of 3.2MPa and 6.4MPa, The experimental result show that hydrodeacidification has high deacidification rate, high yield and the hetero atoms can be removed by this way