Studies on Transcription Factor PsSKN7 and Two RXLR Effectors in Phytophthora Sojae

Phytophthora sojae is a major challenge to the production of soybean in the world. Plant resistance is currently the major control method for P.sojae root rot on soybean. However,resistant cultivars can promote the buildup of new virulent populations.Naturally virulent populations have been recovered from cultivated fields and natural areas;these infestations have resulted in the failure of resistant soybean cultivars.Learning the mechanism underlying the development stages and pathogenicity of P.sojae will help researches to find new targets of chemical control and provide good ideas for designing new control strategies.Reactive oxygen burst and subsequent disarrangement of redox homeostasis are key responsive events that regulate plant-pathogen interaction.For the host,it represents one important defense strategy;for the pathogen,it stands as one obstacle which must be overcome to succeed in infection.In yeasts,SKN7 is a transcription factor contributing to the oxidative stress response.Through bio-informatics screening,a skn7 homologue from Phytophthora sojae was isolated and designated as PsSKN7.Continuous expression of PsSKN7 in yeast can induce cell death.But lower expression of PsSKN7 in the mutant skn7Δwhich was particularly sensitive to oxidative stress and acute heat shock,could rescue growth arrest under these conditions,and increase the resistance of wild type to acute heat shock.These results indicated active roles of PsSKN7 in anti-oxidation.Recent evidence indicates that the RXLR-dEER motif is indeed required for targeting these oomycete effectors into host plant cells.We bioinformatically identify almost 350 candidate effector genes in the genomes of Phytophthora sojae.However,the contributions of these effectors to pathogenicity remain poorly understood.We use PVX expression system and yeast expression system to identify the function of the P.sojae RXLR-dEER effector proteins Avr1b and Avh331.We find that Avr1b can suppress programmed cell death(PCD) induced by H2O2 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae.We also find that Avr1b and Avh331 can suppress PCD triggered by the mouse BAX protein in yeast and Nicotiana benthamiana cells.Avh331 and BAX may interact with each other through yeast two hybrid system.Thus,our results indicate that some RXLR-dEER effector can induce plant susceptibility to P.sojae infection by inhibiting host PCD.

Design of a Low Noise Amplifier and a Down-conversion Mixer in a 2.5GHz Radio Frequency Receiver

With the quick development of wireless communications, radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) as core devices of wireless transmission systems are being widely used in mobile communications, satellite navigations, digital TV, etc., and their trend is towards to high performance, high integration, low power and low cost. Presently more and more RFICs are fabricated in SiGe BiCMOS process, which have nice performance at high frequency, and have high integration, and have low cost.Low noise amplifiers (LNA) and mixers are the pivotal modules of a wireless receiver, which affect sensitivity and dynamic range of the receiver. This thesis analyses transistor noise performance using noisy two-port network theory, and shows the way of optimizing LNA’s noise performance, and analyses sources of LNA’s nonlinearity. It also analyses the linearity of mixers, and gives the methods of optimizing mixer’s linearity. On the base of theory analysis, a LNA and a mixer of a receiver chip used in compass navigation satellite system have been designed. The LNA uses differential structure, and its gain can be tuned. The mixer uses the structure of Gilbert, and uses current injection technology to improve conversion gain and decrease LO amplitude. In the end, the circuit is laid out, and a whole layout is shown.The process of 0.35μm SiGe BiCMOS is used to produce the circuit, and a test to the chip is carried out. The result shows that voltage gain of high gain mode and low gain mode is 30dB and 12.2dB respectively, and the input reflection coefficient is -14dB. The noise figure of cascade system is 2.5dB (high gain mode) and 6.5dB (low gain mode), and input 1dB impression point is -26dBm (high gain mode) and -15.8dBm (low gain mode). The supply voltage of the whole circuit is 3.3V, and current consumption is 19mA.

Hardware Design and Implementation of Vehicle Information Terminal Core Board

Vehicle information terminal is this kind of device which can not only collect the following information such as the data of the vehicle engine, car status and the location information of the vehicle, but also can store that information and transfer them to the background Management platform. It also should have the capabilities of the good human-Computer interaction and entertainment. The research on vehicle information terminal has been going on at home and abroad. There is a big problem in the applicability of the foreign vehicle information terminal. In addition to the problem in the usability of the vehicle, there is a serious lack of information processing capacity, the capacity of signal transmission, scalability, and rich feature of the terminal itself. The above reason results in that those terminals can not meet the relevant demand which comes from background Management platform and the drivers of the vehicle. Starting from solving the problems in the domestic and foreign vehicle information terminal, the subject studies the key technology of realizing the vehicle information terminal core board as the fundamental purpose of the paper that expands as the following ideas.In connection with meeting the requirements of the vehicle information terminal, the subject aims at solving the problem that the function of vehicle information terminal is too simple and the applicability is so narrow from the perspective of enhancing the ability of information terminal information processing, collection, storage, transmission, and human-Computer interaction of the terminal itself at the hardware design. And then, it puts forward the overall design of the core board of the vehicle information terminals and associated circuitry design.The design of the DDR3signal transmission link is one of the key factors which can determine whether the core board can be implemented successfully. Taking the signal integrity of high-speed digital signal such as reflection, crosstalk into account, the subject carries out a detailed analysis of the mechanism of generation of crosstalk, reflection. And then, it have done the signal integrity simulation with taking use of the related Cadence simulation tools and the IBIS model of CPU and DDR3for contrast analysis to determine the parameters of the drive output impedance, transmission line characteristics impedance, the PCB dielectric thickness, the transmission line minimum spacing which make up the transmission line link. So we can reduce the noise coming from the reflection, the crosstalk to meet the limit of DDR3noise tolerance. According to the JEDEC specification for the predetermined DDR3timing, the paper executes the detailed analysis of the mechanism for establishing and maintaining DDR3signal when we read and write the DDR3signal. At last, this paper gives corresponding relationships among the DDR3data signal drive buffer time, the transmission time of the data signal and the DDR3clock signal transmission time to guide design of DDR3transmission line. With above ways, we can settle the issues of signal integrity and timing in the DDR3signal transmission link.The issue of power integrity is another key factor to affect successful design of the core board. According to the ripple requirements of each power supply rail of the core board, the paper analyzes all aspects of the power supply system of the high-speed digital from the perspective of the power distribution network (PDN).By using the Cadence tools for the power integrity design, the paper does some comparison analysis after the simulation and gets the results that both large capacitor with large package and small capacitor with small package have the capability of reducing the power supply impedance at each frequency segment. We can determine the capacitor distribute system which enable the power supply impedance to be lower than the target impedance calculated by the ripple requirements of each power supply rail network in the frequency range from several tens KHz to several hundreds MHz, so as to solve the core board power integrity problem.After testing, from the aspect of the signal part of the core board, the DDR3signal does not have overshoot, jitter, burr and other issues, and PN two-way differential signal does not have delay. From the aspect of power part, except the DDR power supply, the peak Vp-p of the ripple of other power rails remains within30mV, and the measured peak value Vp-p of the DDR part of the power lines is113mv with the result of meeting150mV requirements from the chip manual. Finally, the LINUX kernel and the file system start normally on the hardware platform of the core system and operate stable. That proves the design of core system is successful.

Nontrivial Solutions of Prey-predator Systems with Small Cross-diffusion

In this paper,a predator-prey system with strongly coupled nonlinear reactiondiffusion terms is considered.First,some priori estimates for steady state solutions are indicated.Secondly,we give a necessary condition and a sufficient condition for the existence of positive steady state solutions,then a local bifurcation result is given. Finally,we discuss the structure of solutions with the diffusion coefficient as bifurcation parameters.

The Model Study for the Impetus Mechanism of the Project Affected Immigration

In the base of the general migration theories and the act process analysis, this paper inspects the impetus mechanism of the project affected immigration, which takes the Three Gorges Immigrants waiting for moving as a case. The analysis contains the immigrants’ subjective attitude towards relocating, and how the attitude be formed from the influence factors. At the last, the model of the impetus mechanism of the project affected immigration is put forward. In chapter one, this paper states the backgrounds of this study. Reviewing the related literatures, it points out the limits of those researches, refers the goal and importance of this study, and explains the fundamental conception.In chapter two, the main research method is described. The datum and the way which this paper used for building the model are explained. And also the rudiment of the model is set up, the study hypotheses are raised. The third chapter not only describes the present situation of the Three Gorge immigrants’ subjective attitude, but also analyse the relationship between the attitude and the influence factors. The factors, the parts of the impetus mechanism, conclude the cost-benefit ones, the none-cost-benefit ones, the value judgment ones and the preliminary ones.Based on the reason analysis of the Three Gorge immigrants’ subjective attitude and value tendency which affects their attitude, the dominating impetus mechanism becomes clear. Then the forth chapter selects the central influence factors into the path analysis, which factors are enter the synthetically multiple linear regression. The results reveal that the value judgment based on family benefits is the most important influence factor to the impetus mechanism, the next factor are the cost-benefit and none-cost-benefit ones. In addition, the preliminary variableness exerts some supplementary influence to the dependent variableness, though it can’t enter the path analysis because of some limits. Thus the model of the impetus mechanism of the project affected immigration is set up.At the last chapter, it generalizes all the results of this research and validates the general migration theories with some limits. This study hypothesis are mostly supported. In the end, some illumination and the related policy suggestion are given by this study, the features of the project affected immigration and the deficiencies of this study are discussed as well.

Study on Phosphor Coating for High Power LED Packaging

In this paper, the phosphor films are prepared by different parameters. We have designed the white LED with reflective glass structure and fixed the phosphor film away from the blue-chip for a special distance. After that, its optical efficiency, color rendering index and other properties were characterized. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Zhejiang University Tri-color LED Tester and other analysis or detection methods were used in this experiment. The composition of the phosphor particles, phosphor particles in the silicone, particles’precipitation and its dispersion in the matrix problem, distribution issues, different concentration, thickness of the phosphor film are all discussed in this article. We have made a conclusion that a good optical efficiency with high Color Index of the LED corresponding to the preparation parameters of the phosphor film.Phosphor film microstructure observation showed that the YAG phosphor film phosphor particles (Y3Al5O12) is more evenly distributed, no significant precipitation. When participating into the red phosphor, the red nitride particles (Sr2Si5N8) reunion obviously that this will lead to output light unevenly. In order to avoid the phosphor generating bubbles, we use ultrasonic agitation with vacuum environment to removal bubbles. Phosphor film Mechanical analysis showed that the phosphor particle surface is angular. For the surface tension, the interfacial bonding strength between the silicone matrix and the phosphor particles is low.Raman spectra showed that with the increase in phosphor film’s thickness, white LED’s light intensity is also on the rise. While using same thickness of the phosphor film, the yellow light’s peak strength is also increased with the increasing of yellow phosphor’s content, and vice versa. The incorporation of the red phosphor make the red light segment increased in the Raman spectrum. Its light intensity increase and the optical power diagram become wider and fuller. Also the color rendering index increases with photosynthetic efficiency decrease slightly.We have selected series of White LED of different phosphor concentration film’s thickness and phosphor composition to observe their lighting color. Its efficiency, color coordinates, color rendering index, color temperature and other optical properties were measured by Zhejiang tricolor LED-201. Comprehensive analysis with phosphor to silicone ratio of 1:3:3(yellow phosphor:8866A silicone:8866B silicone) and participation in red phosphor ratio of 1/60 (red phosphor mass/yellow phosphor mass) is obtained. We can find out that the 315μm thickness of these series LED’s light performance is better, and its color index is 79.7, light efficiency is 36.52lm/W. While not participating in red phosphor in the LED, the optimal ratio is 1:3:3(phosphor to silicone ratio) with its thickness of 315μm, and its color coordinates is (0.3248, 0.2830), light efficiency is 69.65lm/W, but its color index is only 74.2.

The Design and Simulation of SAW Tags

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) tags have the characteristics of completely passive operation, low cost and high robustness against Environmental impacts that make them superior to other techniques when used in radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. SAW tags are soon expected to be produced in very high volumes. This paper has done some research and simulation on the SAW tags, especially argued on lowering the system cost, improving the reflectivity of reflectors and increasing the coding capacity. A SAW tag is designed and the optimization of the structure is discussed at the end of the paper.SAW tags generally consist of three parts:tag antenna, inter-digital transducer (IDT) and code reflectors. A reader emits an interrogation pulse, which is received by the tag antenna, directly connected to an IDT. The IDT transforms the electrical signal into a surface acoustic wave, which is a Mechanical wave of particle displacements. The generated SAW pulse then propagates along the surface of the substrate, which is usually made of a strong piezoelectric material such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3). The SAW pulse is partially reflected and partially transmitted by each of the so-called code reflectors, placed at precisely determined positions on the chip. These reflectors usually consist of one or a few narrow aluminum strips. The reflected SAW returning to the IDT thus carries a code based on the positions of the reflectors. When the train of reflected SAWs finally returns to the IDT, the acoustic signal is reconverted into an electrical form due to piezoelectric effect and retransmitted by the tag antenna. The response signal is then detected and decoded by the reader.This paper has presented theory and technology on the SAW tags, including the general framework of the SAW tag, the structure and character of each component, the and the common used coding scheme. First, the IDT model is simulated to determine the propagation characteristics of SAW and the parameters of IDT by finite element analysis (FEA) software through the static, modal and harmonic response analysis. Second, the reflectivity properties and the dispersion characteristic of the reflectors are studied by using the equivalent circuit model (CM) and coupling-of-mode (COM) theory. It is reasonable to adopt suitable reflector framework through computing out the influence of electrode number and thickness. Third, this paper has also made out the coding scheme with the method of multi-pulse position coding (MPPM) to meet the needs of high capacity encoding. Finally, two kinds of improved structure, single-phase unidirectional transducer (SPUDT) collinear structure and Z-path SAW tags, are proposed in order to further reduce the size and cost of SAW tags.

A Study of Linkage and Linkage Characteristics of Price in China and Foreign Gold Markets in China and Foreign Gold Mardets

The gold price has been increased greatly in recent years, it hits new record highs and shows huge fluctuations especially after 2008, due to international financial crisis, Greek sovereign debt crisis, the second round of quantitative easing policy launched by U.S.A, riots in Middle East and North Africa. The linkage of price fluctuation in different gold markets becomes the inevitable trend of global Economic development. China’s gold market, because of its opening to the outside and its own development, has become an important part of and more interrelated and interacted with global gold market. It is a long-term task for China to remove the risk from international gold price fluctuations, enhance its status in and influence on global gold market, and acquire internal pricing of gold. Therefore, it is necessary to study the linkage and linkage characteristics of price in China and foreign gold markets.Based on relevant theories, this paper studies the linkage and linkage characteristics of price in China and foreign gold markets and uses principles of Economics to analyzes its mechanism. Using Shanghai gold market and London gold market as examples, this empirical research analyzes the existence of this linkage through cointegration test, Granger causality test and VAR modeling; studies the constancy of price fluctuations through R/S analysis; and discusses aggregation and asymmetry of fluctuations, and relationship between market returns and fluctuations. The result indicates that there is a Basic linkage whether China has introduced gold futures or not, i.e. the gold price in China cannot exert its influence on that in London while the international prices have guiding power in that in Shanghai market, however, after China has introduced gold futures the gold price in China tends to have an increasing influence on international gold prices and fluctuate strongly facing foreign shocks. On this basis, this paper does further research on the linkage characteristics of price in China and foreign gold markets. The result indicates that the rate of return in both China and foreign gold markets and daily returns are featured by fluctuation clustering, both China and foreign gold markets are evidently asymmetrical, i.e. market fluctuations are more likely to be increased by positive impact than negative impact,furthermore, GARCH-M effect is obvious in both China and foreign gold markets, equilibrium return level is negative in both China and foreign gold markets, all of those markets are irrational and speculative, and the risk premium in China gold market is higher than that in foreign gold markets.

Study on the Relation between Informal Finance and Economic Growth in Rural Areas by Taking Fujian Province for Example

Issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers have been the focus of ourgovernment. At present there is a difficult problem that in our rural areas exists thedual financial structure. The farmers and enterprises have to solve the problems offunds through informal finance because the fund supply in rural financial market fromthe formal finance, however, has been decreasing, which don’t meet the demand ofthe development of rural economy. So it makes informal finance grow well in ruralareas. Many theories prove that the informal finance has played an important role inrisk reduction, resource allocation and mobilization of saving and Economic growth.Based on this background, the analysis of relationship of informal finance andeconomic growth is helpful for us to use informal finance better and promote thedevelopment of rural economy.This paper discusses the related literature about definition, cause and scale ofinformal finance and the mechanism of informal financial influencing economicgrowth. When I understand the reason and the development of informal finance inrural areas, I analyzed its influence to agriculture, countryside and farmers. Thencombined with the literatures I make use the macro data and estimate the scale ofinformal finance in Fujian. Finally, I analyze the relationship of informal finance andeconomic growth by empirical testing and point out the policy and proposal todevelop the informal finance. This paper can reach the following conclusions:(1) Theinformal finance in fujian countryside exists cointegration relationship witheconomic growth but it is not significant one-way causation.(2) A impact to informalfinance will also give the rural economy growth the same impact.

Study on the Growth and Properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ Doped KY (WO4)2 Laser Crystal

21st century is the photoelectron era. Many developed countries regard the development of solid-state laser device to the height of national development strategies. The rapid developments of fiber communication, laser ranging and laser Medical treatment need corresponding development of 1.5μm wavelength lasers, which is eye-safe wavelength. People are more and more interested in the study of such lasers. As we all know, Er3+is used as activation ion, and can generate near 1550 nm fluorescence through the transition of 4I13/2→4I15/2, such as crystal material GdCa4O(BO3)3(GdCOB4), YCa4O(BO3) 3 (YCOB), YAG, YVO4, KGW and so on. But the absorption of Er3+ ion in the crystal from pump light and semiconductor laser is weak, which result in the high laser threshold of general doped Er3+ ion laser crystal. According to literature, Yb3+ ion in the crystal can be used as an effective sensitizer of Er3+ ion, and the absorption wavelength of Yb3+ ion is about 980 nm, which match with the wavelength of LD commercialization. It may improve pumping efficiency and it don’t need the cooling system. So efficient, all-solid and structure-compact laser may be made. Er3+/Yb3+ double-doped laser material has become one of interests in the research.KY(WO4)2 (short for KYW)crystal is an important laser host material, which is monoclicnic system. The space group is C2/c,a=10.61 A, b=10.29 A, c=7.49 A,β=130.65°. Crystal growth is the important branch of the materals science. In this paper, double-doped Er3+/Yb3+ (the molar concentration of Er3+ and Yb3+ both are 5%) in KY (WO4)2 (Er/Yb:KYW) crystal was grown by Top Seeded Solvent Growth (TSSG). The complete monocrystal was obtained by optimizating crystal growth process parameters. In order to comparative study the spectrum property, ErKYW and Yb:KYW with the same concentration as the double-doped crystal were grown by TSSG.KYW crystal is birefringent crystal and has anisotropy. In this paper, the absorption spectra, fluorescence and up conversion spectra in main refractive index axes have been studied. The results showed that fluorescence intensity of the crystal made a great deal of difference by different direction. So the appropriate polarization direction of pumping light and crystal axes should be considered when the laser diode pumping laser is designed. The contrastive analysis between Er/Yb:KYW and Er:KYW and Yb:KYW showed that Yb3+ doped into Er:KYW as sensitizer was efficient and feasible.KYW crystal with self-raman characteristics is a potential laser crystal applied for multi-wavelenth laser. In this paper, the incidence vibration and the absorbing vibration of the Raman vibration mode in different directions were experimented, and the Raman vibration mode and anisotropy of KYW crystal were analyzed theoretically. It showed that different incident and receiving directions affected Raman spectra. The up conversion fluorescence of the double doped crystal were also studied.The up conversion green glow and red glow were got through Er3+/Yb3+:KYW crystal of 980nm LD pumping. The relative intensity of green glow was great but the red glow was low, because the concentration ratio of the crystals which was studied was 1:1. And the up conversion fluorescence in different directions were tested, the result showed that there were all clear up conversion green glow, which will provide with Basic experiment data for people to look for laser medium for designing green laser.