Survey Study on the Occupational Health and Logistical Support Conditions in Fire Stations of Public Security
BackgroundA series of occupationalstandards have been published since the Code of Occupational Disease Prevention of PRC was enforced.However,these standards can not meet the need for protecting s’ occupational completely.Standards related to protecting s’ occupational shall be drafted as soon as possible.This study is aimed to provide data for drafting the standard on for firefighters.ObjectiveTo describe the information of fire stations and firefighters.To describe the conditions of ,the occupational hazards the firefighters exposed to,the protective equipments,firefighters’ occupational health status and firefighters’ occupational health demands.To describe the living conditions,the services,firefighters’ vacation and firefighters’ demands for .MethodA triple stage,stratified,radom,cluster sampling was adopted.The survey data were described and analysed according to the groups devided by the areas and the fire station types respectively.Laws,standards,references related to occupational health were used to evaluate the survey data.Results58 fire stations and 1638 firefighters were surveyed.Firefighters were aged 16.34～36.51, the median and interquartile range were 21.17 and(19.68～24.02) years respectively.The working age was ranged from 0.12 to 17.81 years,the median and interquartile range were 2.37 and(1.12～4.74) years respectively.Firefighters were mainly graduated from high school(56.59%) and they were mainly compulsory servicemen(44.87%) and petty-officers(46.40%).The occupational hazards the firefighters exposed to included chemical factors,physics factors,ergonomic factors,psychological factors,and other factors.Fire smoke,leaked chemical substances,heat stress,thermal radiation,and workplace noise were the hazards the firefighters often exposed to.Some personal protective equipments and detective equipments were provided to firefighters.The median and interquartile range of firefighters’ total responses were 15 and(7～30) per month respectively(the median,east aera＞middle aera＞west aera,P＜0.05).80.28%of the firefighters were injured,the incidence rate was 0.52 per person-year(east aera＞middle aera,P＜0.0001,middle aera＞west aera,P＜0.0001,normal service station＞special service station,P=0.0005) 64.13%of the injuries occurred on training.Sprain and strain,skin wound,cut were the three main types of injuries.The occupational health surveillance work was nonstandard. Only 3.85%of the firefighters knew the Code of Occupational Disease Prevention of PRC. Training on Self-and mutual-rescue,psychological health knowledge,occupational hazards and protective measures were the firefighters’ main demands for occupational health.More than 60%of the firefighters considered the dining rooms,indoor training-rooms, washrooms,and tiolets can meet their need,about 50%of the firefighters considered the washrooms should add showers.22.41%of the fire stations did not have the clinics,the corpsmen flew frequently.The actual vacation days for firefighters were fewer than the expected.Timely treat for the common ailments and acute injuries were the firefighters’ main demands for .ConclusionThe occupational hazards the firefighters exposed to have the character of diversity, complexity,and undeterminacy.The service level of the fire stations is very low.Occpational health surveillance for firefighters are backward.The occupational health training should be strengthened as soon as possible.Injuries are mainly occurred on training.Musculoskeletal injuries are the main types.The dormitories,bathrooms, washrooms,tiolets,and coatrooms basically met the Standard on City Fire Station Construction and the Hygienic Standard for the Design of Industrial Enterprises.Fire departments should set up the occupational health organizations or agencies staffed with full-time or part-time medical professionals and established the systems.The Code of Occupational Disease Prevention of PRC and the correlative knowledges should be popularized.The occupational health surveillance should be carried out normatively.Musculoskeletal injuries should be the key points to be prevented.Daily training should be scientific and reasonable.The records for the injuries should be set up or improved.When the fire stations would be rebulided,the hygienic indexes for anxiliary rooms could be higher than the Hygienic Standard for the Design of Industrial Enterprises.
Alkaloids are the main insecticidal substance of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.. They have effects of stomach poisoning, antifeedant, anaesthesia, population inhibiting and development inhibition against many kind of pests. The 1.0% T. wilfordii alkaloids ME possesses excellent insecticidal activities. It could not only kill the pests directly, but also reduce pest feeding amount, inhibit pest growth and increase pest population significantly. ME is an ideal environments harmonious and botanical insecticide used for harmlessproducts. This dissertation determinated the of 95% and to non-target organisms according to”Experimental Guideline for of Chemical Pesticide”. The main results and conclusions are as follows:（1） Both 95% and had no apparent contact to bee. The intake LC50 of 95% and 1.0% T. wilfordii alkaloid ME to bee were 89.0324mg/L and 301.7481 mg/L respectively. 95% total alkaloid was moderate toxic to been. 1.0% T. wilfordii alkaloid ME was low toxic to bee.（2） T. wilfordii alkaloid-based products were moderate toxic. Both of them had no obvious contact toxicity to silkworm, but there were some impact on the weight of molting silkworm and cocoon.（3） The LD50 of 95% total alkaloid was 27.8580mg/kg to quail. The LD50 of 1.0% T. wilfordii alkaloid ME was 52.7414mg/kg to quali. They belong to moderate toxic and low toxic respectively. The accumulative coefficient of two products was 5.96. No significant cumulative toxicity to quail was found.（4） The T. wilfordii alkaloid-based products were both low toxic to earthworm. Their LC50 were higher than 1000mg/L.（5） 95% total alkaloid was low toxic to tadpole, while the ME was moderate toxic to tadpole with LC50 （48h） of 0.6915mg/L.（6） Water culture method showed that EC10 of ME to corn, cucumber and cowpea was 66.2499, 15.4960 and 25.8104mg/L. The ME was low risk to succeeding crops.（7） The effect of T. wilfordii alkaloid-based products on total CO2 emission from soil by the method of airtight showed that products were low toxic. The botanical pesticide T. wilfordii alkaloid-based products were low toxicity to organism, more security. There will be no serious impact on the environment organisms during application. But we should be caution while used in the mulberry.
The rapid development of information technology makesnetwork become a large-scale complex network while the complex systems in the real world can be represented via the complex networks. Thus, to model a complex network and to study of the complex network’s dynamic behaviors becomes a significantly important research issue. The complex network dynamics is closely related with the network topology, and this paper intends to work on how the network topology affects the network information search. The topology structure’s influence on the information search can be manifested in two ways:the network search performance (i.e. the shortest average path), network search algorithm. Hence, this paper attempts to study the network topological features’influences on the information search from the two levels.Firstly, we establish the BA scale-free model and change its , and then, discuss the ’s impacts on network search. Through the simulation experiment, we found out that the disassortative scale-free network and the low assortative network share the a shorter average path which is suitable for information search; while the high assortative network’s average path is relatively longer which is unsuitable for information search. The maximum-scale search algorithm is suitable for the disassortative scale-free network and the low assortative network, not for the high assortative network. In the high assortative network, the shortest scale search algorithm is even worse than the random search algorithm.Then, under the scale free network and the small world network, we study the clustering coefficient’s impacts on the network search. Through the simulation experiment, we found out that the shortest average path in the scale free network decreases with the increase of the clustering coefficient and the shortest average path in the small world network increases with the increase of the clustering coefficient, which illustrates that clustering features contribute to the information search in the scale free network, while in the small world network, over clustering features go against the information search.
Since the reform and opening up, China economy has been developing rapidly, but italso brings a series ofproblems. Frequent natural disasters, environmentalpollution and inefficient use of resources is not only contrary to the original intention of thesound and rapid development of the national economy, but also endanger people’s daily livesand . Enter into the21st century, based on the “3R” principle-reduction, reuse,recycling-established is undoubtedly a fundamental way to achievesustainable development.In recent years, with the rapid development of the economy, the behavior of asingle regional correlation has long been not only limited to the scope of its regional. Onenature of the regional economy is external, the interaction between the region, with thepassage of the national and regional development focus from south to north, the developmentof Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei regional integration has become an important contentof our country regional development. Under the background of world city Beijing,the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region development facing the extensive mode of economic growth,ecological pressure on the environment, resources are depleted even more pronounced, severefog and haze for the development of traditional industries in Beijing, Tianjin and sounded thealarm. Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei geographic bordering the industrial stage of developmentand the structure is similar to the face of the resources, environment, population pressure,ecological industry chain as an effective model of coordinated development of economy andthe environment is an inevitable choice to promote inter-regional cooperation.Firstly, the domestic and international research on the recycling economy and ecologicalindustry chain overview and assessment, and introduces some theory used in this article:the cycle of economic theory, the theory of ecological industry chain, key species theory.Followed by analysis to identify the existing problems in the eco-industrial system ecologicalindustrial chain status quote of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Cited the current developmentof eco-industrial park. On the basis of the above analysis, the industry of the preferred Beijing,Tianjin keystone species,”built chain””chain extender” and “make up chain” ideas and theirmeans of designing and building ecological industrial chain. Next space layout and key areas of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei ecological industrial chain node, and promote eco-industrialpark, comprehensive utilization of resources and ecological measures,construction mode and Countermeasures. According to the conclusions drawn by the variousindicators, Beijing, Tianjin is divided into four key industries and three ecological industrychain, and draw space layout. Finally, the combination of theory and analysis, introduced topromote the integration of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei eco-industrial policy recommendations.
A Cross-cultural Study on Role Relationship between Teachers and Students in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language
The teacher-student relationship is the mostinterpersonal relationship inteaching process and the communication between teachers and students takes up the bulkof classroom activity. In the process of teaching ,communication between teachers and students is conducted in a cross-cultural context.Maintaining good relationships between teachers and students can smooth anycross-cultural conflicts that arise and ensure the teaching objectives are met. Furthermore,by conceptualizing the teacher-student relationship in light of the “role” theory of , the shift in expectations and behavior of both sides allowfor vast improvement in communication to be realized.In comparing and analyzing the teacher-student dynamic in both China and abroad,many differences can be seen in stark relief. Whereas in China this relationship is oftendefined by clear rank, a one-way discourse, and orderliness, in the West haslargely evolved to embody instability, equality and interaction. Consequently, therelationship between teachers and students in a Chinese learning classroom requires athoughtful balance of sometimes opposite cultural sensibilities. In fact, in such a setting,both teachers and students place many roles on themselves since cross-culturalcommunication occurs throughout the course introduction, teacher’s instructions, students’practice, and review and assessment. Drawing on these four areas, challenges can beobserved as the role of teacher and students are constantly being negotiated and roleexpectations correspondingly adjust.Under the sweeping tide of globalization, the Chinese teacher will play additional,new roles, such as learner, researcher, and innovator, while the students will become thecultural envoy and local teacher. This interactive and developing model of theteacher-student relationships will continue to draw a lot of attention going forward especially as increasing forces of internationalization bring disparate people togetherlonging to become familiar with each other’s customs and language.
This thesis considers theof infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters. Inorder to deal with the nonconvexity and enlarge the stability domain of the design problem as wellas to reduce the filter’s passband group delay and , severalsequential constrained minimization based design algorithms have been developed in this thesis.Better filters, especially with smaller passband group delays and smaller transition-band magnitudeovershoots than those of the filters designed by existing algorithms, have been obtained by theproposed algorithms.The sequential constrained least squares (SCLS) method converts a probleminto a series of constrained least squares (CLS) design problems and has higher opportunity ofobtaining better filters than direct minimax methods. The second-order factor based sequentialminimization (SMSOF) method converts the of an IIR digital filter into a series ofminimax design subproblems of IIR digital filters with second-order denominators, such that thenecessary, sufficient and linear s for second-order factors can be used as thestability constraint of the design problem to obtain better filters than existing methods.However, the above methods do not impose any constraints on the frequency responses of thefilters, and thus often obtain filters with large group delays near the passband edges and largemagnitude overshoot in the transition bands. In addition, how to effectively use the characteristicsof the above two methods is also an important issue that needs to be considered. After a brief surveyof IIR digital filter designs and presenting the existing SCLS and SMSOF methods for minimaxdesign of IIR digital filters, this thesis presents several improved design algorithms for IIR digitalfilters, which are summarized as follows:1. A combinative method based on the SCLS and SMSOF methods. This method first convertsa minimax design problem into a series of minimax problems with second-order denominators, Theobtained minimax problems are then further converted into a sequence of constrained least squaressubproblems for the designs of IIR digital filters with second-order denominators, the frequencyresponse error upper bounds of which are produced by a shrinking-and-bisection technique. Designexamples show that the combinative method has obtained smaller frequency response error andpassband group delay error.2. Two sequential constrained minimax (SCMM) methods. Both methods consider the minimi-zation of the maximum passband and stopband frequency response error as well as the minimizationof the maximum transition-band frequency response error, but use different techniques to minimize different errors. While the first method minimizes the maximum transition-band frequency responseerror using the shrinking-and-bisection technique and the maximum passband and stopbandfrequency response error with a direct minimax algorithm, the second method minimizes the formererror with a direct minimax algorithm and the later error by a shrinking-and-bisection technique.Design examples demonstrate that, while the maximum passband and stopband frequency responseerrors are minimized, both methods can obviously reduce the sand the passband group delay errors.3. An SMSOF based SCMM method. This method combines the SCMM method with theSMSOF method and converts the minimax design of an IIR digital filter into a sequence ofconstrained minimax sub-problems of IIR digital filters with second-order denominators whosestability constraints are the linear and necessary and sufficient s. Design examplesshow that the filters’ s and the passband group delay errors canbe further reduced by the SMSOF based SCMM method.
Blast construction is always used in the excavation of tunnel in many hydroelectric engineerings.It is unavoidable to appear the questions that the effects on the tunnel itself and neighboring constructions by blast vibration. Especially we will meet the question of blast vibration on the existent tunnel by blast excavation of hydroelectric diversion tunnel under construction of many tunnels or two following tunnels. When the intensity of blast vibration exceed the criterion value,it will damage even destroy the concrete construction and rocks.So it is very essential to understand the effect and characteristic of blast vibration dynamic load on concreteand rock. The suggestions for safety criterion of blasting vibration should be proposed ,and the regulation can be offered for practical design of blasting construction.In the factual , safe control criterion is often in virtue of measure the spot’s blast vibration velocity and regression analyze attenuation equation of blast vibration so that forecast possible coming into being vibration intensity.In this article, author has done some research on on cirque tunnel concrete and different direction attenuation equation under blast vibration dynamic load by making use of general FEM analysis software-ANSYS-LS/DYNA.This thesis, author has summarized the theory of passes and attenuation equation of stress wave;deduced process and solution of vibration equation; calculated the velocity of concrete and rock under blast vibration dynamic load; explained concrete different part’s blast vibration velocity and distributing changes by theory of Stress reflecting; emphasized attenuation equation of radial velocity on axis top of tunnel; at last analyzed the effect by the blast vibration frequency.By means of calculation and anslysis ,some conclusions are reached as follows:(1) Ihe effect is smaller that is made by water pressure on vibration caused by blast dynamic load inside and outside of existent tunnel.(2) Low frequency stress wave does more damage.(3) As far as blast vibration dynamic load is concerned,the time is longer and the damage on concrete and rock is bigger.(4) has magnify effect in the vertical direction,the vibration value of vertical direction is bigger than horizontal direction at the same distance to blast place.(5) Radial velocity is bigger on axis top of tunnel at the distance of 3 times of radius to free face.(6) As blast vibration velocity of existent tunnel, it is bigger that is closer to blast spot, it is bigger in Interior side of concrete lining because of free face.(7) In the factual blast vibration velocity’s attenuation is decided by medium damp,but it has magnify effect in some area because of free face and corner.
Empirical Research on Technology Spillover Impacting Technology Progress of Hubei Province Based on CH Model
in a certain region is usually impactedmainly by its own R&D, at the same time by the R&D outside theregion. This dissertation researches R&D how to impact technologyprogress in Hubei province. We divide the R&D into three parts: thefirst part is the R&D invested by Hubei province; the second part isthe R&D invested by domestic (excluding Hubei); the third part isforeign R&D input. Foreign R&D impacts technology progress ofHubei province by technology spillover caused through and channels. Based on this circumstance, thisdissertation summarizes the current research status of the past,combined with the present situation of R&D, , trade in Hubei province, then analysis the relationship betweentechnology spillover and technology progress in Hubei province,finally provides proposals of how to develop its , import andexport trade.Firstly, this paper analyzes the mechanism of R&D impacting thetechnology progress, that is R&D how to impact the technologyprogress, explores how foreign R&D impact technology progress ofHubei province by technology spillover caused through FDI andimport and export channels, and combined with current situation ofR&D, FDI, import in Hubei and the national (eliminate Hubei). Secondly, this paper focuses on empirical research, mainly includesthe origin of data and variable selection, model establishment,measurement analysis, hypothesis test, establishes the effects anddifferences of FDI, import and export impacting technology progress,The results show that R&D of Hubei and the national (eliminateHubei) have a positive impact on its technology progress, FDI has anegative impact, the impact on the import and export trade is notobvious. At the end of the series of policy enlightenment is provided.
The, because of its Advantages-large load capacity, Hightransmission efficiency, Stable transmission, Low noise. are widely utilized in Aviation,navigation, automobile, s, machinery industry. In the gearbox of , the Spiralbevel gear not only works as Transmission torque but also changes the direction of themotion.it is the important power transmission parts. The parts are very high in strength,dynamic performance and reliability requirements. However, its working condition in thetransmission system is very complicated. There may be external excitation induced by theoriginal motivation and load, but also mesh out of shock, backlash and tooth shape errorcaused by internal motivation. Along with the progress of modern science and technology,Spiral bevel gear develops with high speed, heavy load and light quality. So it is verynecessary to research spiral bevel gear strength, dynamic characteristic and reliability.（1）According to spiral bevel gear meshing principle and Tooth surface differentialneighborhood characteristics.Specific analysis of spiral bevel gear real tooth surfacemeshing.Combined with arc tooth bevel gear principle and Cutter equations. Derivation ofspiral bevel gear tooth surface equation.（2）Take advantage of parametric design program, Establish the spiral bevelgear3D solid model And virtual assembly, In order to satisfy the contact finite elementanalysis, kinematic simulation and dynamic analysis.(3) Study finite element method and the principles of the analysis process. In viewof the main research solving methods of finite element contact problem analyzed andcompared.Ultimately determine the spiral bevel gear contact model and Contact algorithm.for nonlinear analysis In ANSYS, Ultimately get von mises stress and von mises total strainof the meshing gear and their Distribution situation. Apply Hertz contact theory Calculationskidding–80tractor front axle and rear axle spiral bevel gear theoretical value. The finite element analysis and theoretical values are compared and analyzed. Verify the finite elementreliability.(4) Analysis the spiral bevel gear of high speed rotating mode analysis, Self vibrationfrequency of the Spiral bevel gear is much larger than the rotation frequency and the meshingfrequency at high speed rotate. Under normal circumstances, they may not produce Selfresonance as a result of gear meshing. For gear design and further research provide a reliabletheoretical basis, through the mode of vibration Can be visually identified the weak link ofthe gear vibration. For gear design and maintenance provide reliable basis.(5) Fully considering the minimum volume, Bending strength design of the maximumallowable transmission power and Contact strength design of maximum allowabletransmission power, Establish a general objective function. Make use of the complex method;give spiral bevel gear transmission for multi objective optimization. To make the design morepractical, more rational, more scientific, for determining the spiral bevel gear of the mainparameters provide a new method.