Dewey’s Thought about Demarcation of Science

Dewey is not a like Popper, Kuhn as a philosopher of science, but his understanding of science that is not inferior to any orthodox philosopher of science. As a master of pragmatism, Dewey’s unique view of science is known as a pragmatic view of science, and his view of science is based on the demarcation of science. Study of Dewey’s view on the demarcation of science is equally important for helping deepen the demarcation of scientific research, expanding the Philosophy of science research, understanding and evaluation of Dewey’s Philosophy of pragmatismDewey lived in the scientific era that the modern science developed rapid. Rejection of traditional metaphysics, transform the traditional “dualistic” Philosophy, Dewey hope philosophy concern the people’s real life as science. Dewey’s ideas about the transformation of philosophy also reflects in the demarcation of science. he was opposed to merely theoretical level, to distinguish science from non-science advocates in action and the boundaries of science into practice, the pragmatism of empirical, instrumental and usefulness as a scientific demarcation of the Basic criteria. Empirical standards require scientific validation to be with people linked to the practice of life, tools, guidelines illustrate the effectiveness and value of science, and practical guidelines for the scientific truth reflects Dewey’s insights.Dewey’s standard reflects the pragmatism of scientific demarcation of the static and dynamic nature of theory and practice, subjectivity and objectivity of the organic unity of the later development of the theory of scientific demarcation had a major impact. Dewey’s critique of logical positivism for making the demarcation of science standards from absolute to relative, from one dollar to multiple, we can clearly see Dewey’s pragmatism blot in Kuhn, Feyerabend, philosopher of science such as the demarcation of the theory. In addition, Dewey’s theory of demarcation of science itself has a broader meaning. Beyond the natural sciences and the Humanities and Social sciences between the binary opposition, it changed the traditional way of science Education, rejected scientism in a “scientific humanism “position. This is no doubt that the development of science in contemporary China has a positive reference.

Hydrolase Catalyzed Michael Addition Reaction and Direct Asymmetric Mannich Reaction

Biocatalysts as environmentally friendly, mild conditions, highly stereoselective and economically feasible catalysts have expanded rapidly for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral intermediates for chemical, pharmaceutical and agrochemical. However, there is only limited availability of enzymes, and enzymes only feature limited substrate specificity. Therefore, it is significant to widen the applicability of existing enzymes by exploring novel unnatural activities of enzymes. Nowadays, enzyme promiscuity, namely the possibility that one active site of an enzyme can catalyze several different chemical transformations. It greatly expands the application of existing enzymes and provides green tools for organic synthesis.In this thesis, we reported Micheal addition of C-C bond formation catalyzed by acid proteinase. We described here the readily available acidic protease from aspergillus usamii (AUAP) catalyzed Michael addition of ketones to nitroolefins. The reaction conditions including organic solvents, solvent volume, water content, temperature, substrate stoichiometry were optimized. The scope of the reaction was tested by varying the nitroalkenes and ketones. For most of aromatic and heteroaromatic nitroalkenes, satisfied yields were obtained and the good yield of up to87%. Besides, we performed some control experiments including the completely denatured enzymes and inhibition of the catalytic activity. But the mechanism is uncertain, and further research is needed.We aslo report the first biocatalytic direct asymmetric three-component Mannich reaction. Crude protein and α-amylase were respectively used to catalyze three-component Mannich reaction between aromatic aldehydes, aromatic amines, and ketones. A commercially available crude protein from porcine pancreas mainly composed of a-amylase, lipase and trypsin. The main components of the crude protein were also used to catalyze the Mannich reaction separately, and the results indicated that a-amylase played important role in the direct asymmetric Mannich reaction. Several important factors including solvent, water content, temperature, enzyme loading, the molar ratio of substrates and pH were examined to optimize the biocatalytic process. A wide range of substrates could be accepted by the crude protein to give Mannich products in satisfactory yields with moderate to good enantioselectivity and diastereoselectivity. The crude protein was used to catalyze the Mannich reaction in1,4-dioxane, and the good yields of up to87%, enantioselectivities of up to82%ee and diastereoselectivities of up to84:16(syn/anti) were achieved. The results indicate that the temperature and optimum water content are different for one enzyme in different solvents. α-Amylase was used to catalyze the direct asymmetric Mannich reaction in1,4-dioxane, a wide range of substrates could be transformed into the corresponding Mannich products up to87%yields, enantiomeric excess (ee) up to76%and diastereoselectivities up to78:22(syn/anti).

Preparation and Photocatalytic Investigation of a Self-assembly Multilayer Film Based on Keggin-type Polyoxometalate and Oxide Nanoparticles

In recent years, the use of micro-and nano-assembly of chemical Engineering technology to develop new multi-functional thin films have attracted wide attention from researchers. And the oxide nanoparticles play an important role in building nano-thin film devices,which have excellent optical, electrical and catalytic properties. The polyoxometalates have attracted more and more attention because of their excellent physical and chemical properties and potential applications. In particular, polyoxometalates, due to its unique dragon-like structure and electronic diversity, having the ability to proceed in multiple, consecutive, and reversible multielectron reductions without decomposition to mixed-valence species due to their unique electronic diversity, have great significance for the electrochemistry and materials chemistry research. Therefore, the self-assembly of polyoxometalates and oxide nanoparticles can produce a new excellent photochemical and electrochemical properties, not only explore the potential application in material chemistry but also enrich polyoxometalates chemistry theory.In this paper, we mainly aim at the preparation of the composite multilayer film containing polyoxometalates and oxide nanoparticles. A series of multilayer films {PEI/[PW12/TiO2]n} and {PEI/[PW12/PEI/PSS-CdO/PEI]n} were prepared by layer- by-layer self-assembly method. The comp- onents, structure and properties of the multilayer films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis, scanning electron microscope, atom force microscope, and fluorescence spectroscopy.The results showed that it was uniform and smooth from layer by layer monitored by UV-vis spectra. The images of atom force microscope indicated that the surface of the multiplayer film were smooth and dispersed with uniform spherical particles. From the fluorescence spectra of the films {PEI/[PW12/ PEI/PSS-CdO/ PEI]n}, we found that luminescent properties of nano-CdO still exists. Simultan- eously, under the UV-vis irrdiation, the UV-vis spectra of {PEI/[PW12/ PEI/PSS–CdO/PEI]n} films showed slight photochromic phenomenon at the range of the visible lignt by prolong the time of irrdiation. Photocatalytic results showed that the composite film {PEI/[PW12/TiO2]n} and {PEI/[PW12/PEI/ PSS-CdO/PEI]n} have a higher photocatalytic activity than single component multi-layer film for methyl orange dye decolorization degradation. And proved by experiments, the composite film {PEI/[PW12/PEI/PSS-CdO/PEI]n} catalyst can be reused. The results of photo- catalytic experiments demonstrated that the multilayer films have well photo- catalytic activity with polyoxometalate and oxide nanoparticles.

The Way to Improve the Quality of College Students of Art

Being artistic can make people elegant, pure, creative and imaginative. The past experience already proved that Education on art cannot be replaced by any other subjects. It is also a very important part of modern Education and higher education reform. College students are the future of our country which have been the driving force for the development of our society. To receive good artistic education is becoming more and more urgent. Artistic education is the most fundamental piece before stepping into the society which serves even more important role in helping students setting their goal right.Artistic education uses the art to convey and express the sprit and ideas that are systematic in essence. Artistic education is the combination of psychological and emotional training that can foster and cultivate the young’s view and value and finally make them the better man.Yanbian university is one of the most complex, regional, famous and culture-rich college in northeast China, it is on the list of many massive state-invested projects. Yanbian university has come to a conclusion that putting artistic education in front of everything is rather practical.To Find out the current predicament of artistic education in China the author has looked through many documents in-depth, googled the Internet thoroughly, analyzed s lots of publications from all over the world. Questionnaire, visiting the relevant government bodys, and cell phone survey are the most commonly-used methods to analyze and expose the truth in Yanbian university about the artistic education. There are three requirements that we have to meet when we implement the policy——First, sticking the policy of combining artistic education and general education. Second, sticking the policy of developing and improving artistic education. Third, sticking the policy of implementing the artistic education both academically and practicallyThe list below are the author’s opinions about how to improve enhance the artistic education in Yanbian university.1. Making the best use of the school library.2. Building more diverse students societies and organizations.3. Improving some of the on-going artistic education courses.4. Paying more attention to the cooperation with some other prestigious institutes from the art field.5. Taking advantage of the special funds and grants that the state has given the university.I hope this material can be used by anyone who is willing to improve the artistic education both domestically and internationally.

Improved Design of Tracking Loop for a GPS Receiver and Its FPGA Implementation

The tracking loop is one of core designs in the GPS receiver. It is mainly composed of the carrier phase-locked loop (PLL), the carrier frequency-locked loop (FLL) and C/A code delay-locked loop (DLL).Although the GPS receiver has been used more and more widely, there are still contradictions among the tracking precision, speed and resource consumption for the tracking loop. How to improve the tracking precision and speed but reduce the resource consumption is a difficult issue in the GPS receiver design. Therefore, this thesis aims to improve the design and the implementation of the tracking loop in order to improve the tracking precision and speed while reducing the resource consumption, and then comprehensively enhance the overall performance of the GPS receiver.The main contributions of this thesis include the following four aspects:(1) As the input and output range of the arctangent function in existing CORDIC algorithms is small, this thesis improved CORDIC algorithm by adding the quadrant transformation and phase transformation function. Thus the improved algorithm can be directly applied to the design of tracking loop discriminators;(2) The improved CORDIC algorithm was used to achieve the designs of the four-quadrant arctangent frequency discriminator, the two-quadrant arctangent phase discriminator, and the non-coherent early-minus-late amplitude discriminator, which has the highest precision. Specifically, the four-quadrant arctangent discriminator and the two-quadrant arctangent discriminator was designed in combination by sharing the same CORDIC module, the resource consumption was then reduced;(3) The influence of tracking loop filter parameters was analyzed, and the optimal parameters were chosen through testing experiments to achieve fast tracking.(4) By using the Cyclone III series FPGA development board produced by Altera corporation as the hardware platform, the Quartus II and Modelsim as the software platform, this thesis completed the above design with Verilog HDL code and simulations of the core modules in the tracking loop. The results showed that the design of this thesis could improve the precision of tracking loop, accelerate the speed of stabilized tracking, and reduce the hardware resources.

Some Dynamical Properties of a Cellular Automata on a Countable Group

In this paper,we study some dynamical properties of a cellular automata on a countable group.The main results are as follows:(1)If a cellular automata on a countable group is transi-tive,then it is either sensitive or consist of a single periodic orbit ;(2)By using of the forms of attractor,we give the classification of the cellular automata on a countable group;(3)The set of eventually periodic points of a cellular automata on a countable residually finite group is dense;(4)For a new kind of cellular automata which comes from physical model,we prove that it con-jugates to a cellular automata on a countable group,and then the three results mentioned above hold in this new kind of cellular automata.

Internet Addiction Disorder of the Vocational College Students in Yueyang City to Investigation and Countermeasures

Network game is more and more popular in colleges, at the same time it placed an issue of Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) in front of the parents, educators and society. IAD influences the growth of the college students and society greatly. Nowadays every college student use internet but overuse will influence their study and life severely; We have to concern about this phenomenon.This article has Yueyang City vocational college students as the research objects, the questionnaires, individual interviews, case analysis and other methods have been used, the online behavior and internet addiction of Yueyang vocational students have been studied. Aimed at surveying the vocational college students network usage situation and the main reason of IAD, then based on the features of IAD and the actual situation of Yueyang City, this paper will give some IAD prevention and Countermeasures recommendations.This paper discover it by sampling survey that most students in Technical and Vocational College surf the internet for entertainment, in which play network games occupies about 90%. Among 466 investigated students, about 1/3 of them have the IAD trends with different level; the research shows that the freshmen have the largest number of IAD students, and the highest proportion of serve addiction, the IAD situation of Yueyang vocational students cannot be ignored.The research also found, 95% of addiction students think the motivation of network games is “In order to achieve something which cannot come true at the reality”, as the harmonious interpersonal relationships, positive frustrations, pressure resolvation, attracted others’ attention, be respected, self-fulfillment realization and so on.On the basis of the investigation, this paper got the reason that why the freshman have a relatively high IAD ratio, and also described the influence of IAD on vocational student’s physical and mental Health, study, Economic, behavioral and security. Then this work take two IAD graduated vocational students as the case study samples, these real cases show that the IAD in school will give them far-reaching impact on study, personality and Social adjustment. The deficiency of school, family and Social Education also be explored, this paper also put forward specific prevention and Countermeasures of IAD after depth analysis, I hope this work could contribute to the IAD prevention and Countermeasures work of Yueyang Vocational schools.

Controlled Grafting Modification of Chitosan and Its Properties

Chitosan is a well-known abundant natural polymer. Due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility and non-toxicity, there has been many applications in some fields such as biomedical and agriculture. However, due to its high crystallinity and poor solubility, chemical modification is always needed to improve the properties of chitosan, and enlarge their application fields. At the same time, in the past few decades, great progress has been made on controlled/living free radical polymerizations due to their ability to synthesize polymers with well-controlled molecular weights and well-defined structures under relatively simple and convenient experimental conditions. In this thesis, chemical modification of chitosan was performed via nitroxide mediated living radical polymerization (NMP) and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The obtained graft copolymers composed of chitosan and synthetic polymers have both advantages of chitosan and synthetic polymers, which facilitates more applications of the chitosan.The work in this thesis can be summarized as follows:(1) poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) grafted chitosan was synthesized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Chitosan-TEMPO macroinitiator was obtained from the irradiation of N-phthaloylchitosan with 4-hydroxy-TEMPO in DMF under argon atmosphere, and then was used for grafting PSS onto chitosan at 125℃. The results indicated that the graft polymerization was well controlled by the nitroxide-mediated process, and the graft copolymers were successfully synthesized. Chitosan-g-PSS could self-assembly into the worm-like or spherical micelles, which might be associated with PSS; and the ion-exchange property of chitosan-g-PSS could be controlled by adjusting PSS graft content. The property may promote the graft copolymers to be used in the ion exchange for the environment protection. To our knowledge, this is the first report to synthesize the grafted chitosan to improve the capacity by the controlled polymerization, in which the chain length and the structure of PSS could be controlled, thereby leading to the controllable capacity.(2) Thermo- and pH-sensitive chitosan graft copolymer was prepared by N-Schiff base and direct esterification method. Lilial-protected chitosan(LICS) was first synthesized by Schiff base reaction of chitosan with lilial in a ionic liquid ([BMIM]Cl), 1-Methyl-3-buty-imidazolium chloride. Because the intermediate LICS was soluble in organic solvents, the graft copolymerization can be carried out in homogenous system. So LICS was then esterified with the”well-defined”carboxyl terminated PNIPAM, which synthesized from RAFT polymerization of NIPAM in the presence of S-1-dodecyl-S’-(α,α’-dimethyl-α”-acetic acid)trithiocarbonate. The graft copolymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Graft copolymer can self-assemble into nano-particles in aqueous solution, and as the temperature increasing, the morphology and the size distribution were changed accordingy. Furthermore, the polymeric micelle system using lilial as a model drug was studied for drug controlled release. The results show that lilial release is pH- and temperature- responsive.

Now Our country is being in a period of economic development, massiv…

Now Our country is being in a period of Economic development, massive Engineering projects have been put into construction, indicating our country entering “project periods”, The successful implementation of the project is determined by many factors, but one of the most crucial which plays a decisive role in whether or not financing model is appropriate to the project which is well integrated into projects. This requires us to study the specific financing models, through the concept of global, dynamic and efficiency, besides financing model depends on its own characteristics、advantages, also appliaction in the specific projects to see if it’s to meet current project development characteristics and conditions, as well as its ability to resolve future problems during the operation, such as self-adaptation.However, the development of modern Engineering projects become more and more complex, systematic, professional. When we select the financing model,we found that a single model such as BOT, BT,TOT, has been difficult to adapt to project development, requiring a high degree of flexibility, adaptability, the emergence of a new model – BOT&BT&TOT integrated financing model, which is an integrated financing model based on a single model , which include both the single-mode functionality, but also innovative some new features, an effective response to the changing external environment.I put forward BOT&BT&TOT integrated financing model based on the concept, in theory, systems Engineering in the Hall three-dimensional structure, and establish a BOT&BT&TOT model of integrated financing model; in practice through goal-oriented project planning method (ZOPP) analysis applications BOT&BT&TOT integrated financing model the actual Gejiu – Datun Level 1 Highway&Tunnel, summed up the BOT&BT&TOT integrate the theory of financing models for the future based on our Construction of infrastructure projects to provide experience and advice.

Study on Preliminary Assessment of the Ability of the Reproductive Health Services for Mobile Population of the Birth Control Agency in Cities

ObjectOn the basis of the roles of the service played by birth control agency on the reproduction Health concerning mobile population and combined with the importance and superiority of the capability of serving reproduction Health, the parameters for assessment of domestic urban birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction Health were screened, the standards for serving capacity were identified basically and weights and capacity standards were identified too, to build up the system for assessment of the serving capacity. Based on this,to find out the parameters that influence serving capacity, so that we can give strategic advices for advancing the birth control agency’s capability of serving reproduction health of mobile population and further improve its services.Method1. Documentary method: look up both domestic and international documents on the threory of reproduction health service, assessment of reproduction health service, assessment of capacity of health service, and assessment of birth control agency’s service.2. Consult experts by questionnaire to identify the weights and standard system for assessment of birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health3. Questionnaire: questionnaire was used to collect that data of the indicators for assessment of birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health in each area.4. On-site observation: investigators collected the data of the indicators for assessment of birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health in each area according to the constructed observation plan.5. Statistics: Set up database with Microsoft Office Excel2003 and further calculate SPSS11.5 was used for statistical analysis and especially characterizing statistical analysis was performed.Results1. The assessment system for birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health has two dimensions including structural index and index about the implementation of the services, 7 secondary indices and 28 trtiary indices.2. The assessment system for birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health is a function of the indices of the capacity of services.The score of each restricts:In Guangzhou, Huadu’s score is the highest 70.26.No significant diversity exists among each restricts. In Shenzheng,Luohu’s score is the highest 80.84. Comparatively, most of the restricts in Shenzheng are good.In Wuhan, Wuchang is the highest. According to the result, Shenzheg is the best.3. Investigation was done concerning the mobile population, the financial endeavor made by birth control agencies and their personnel in the smaple cities. The number of staff for mobile people per 10000 have been figured out. The average cost and the Basic information have been found. 4. Based on the assessment indices for capacity of services, the constructed assessment standards and the data collected from the birth control agencies in those areas, the points for the capacity of services in each sample area were obtained.(1) Significant difference of input between mobile and local people(2) The number of the staff can not satisfy the need(3) No encourage system for the staff.(4) Inadequate service for key population(5) The control and prevention did not be included in the work(6) The information platform is not completedConclusions1. Birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health was the capacity that’s supported by national policy, implemented by organizations, and realized by divisional birth control agencies’ funtion in service. Its assessment dimensions include structural index and index about the implementation of the services.2. During the construction of the assessment system for birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health and through validation test of the advices from experts, It’s been shown that the experts were highly positive about this research, they relatively agreed on the importance of those indices, the prospective results from the assessment system for birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health were credible and the system would be able to assess the birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health relatively effectively and reliably.3. Through the assessment system, the capacity of services in 18 areas in the sample cities was comprehensively evaluated and the divisional birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health was assessed, so that the defects in birth control agency’s ability to serve the mobile population regarding reproduction health could be found out. Policy suggestion1. The human resource for reproduction health should be optimized. When the input for the service being enhanced, also the human resource must be allocated and explored more efficiently.2. New mechanism should be investigated, and the‘three same’must be pursued. The difference of service between the local population and mobile population must be eliminated.3. Efficient and new service system should be established.4. Improve the cooperation among each related departments5. The community reproduction service center should be installed.6. The net for information about the mobile population must been improved7.The sense and ability of reproduction health care in mobile population must be upgraded