As thematerial of milk manufacture, the quality control of raw milk is the substantial step in the whole quality control. If this step occurs problems, no matter how advanced the next control method is and how strict the control instrument is, we will only get half the result with twice the effort. Milk is a kind of well-fed food. These nutrition is extremely good for microbe’s growth and reproduction. Therefore, detect raw milk’s aerobic bacterial count is one of the most important indexes of milk quality’s detection. The traditional method of detecting aerobic bacterial count is agar counting which operate fussily, need 48 hours’detect time and count with naked eye can be easily influenced by environmental factors and influence economic efficiency of milk manufacture. In this thesis, research has been done about detecting aerobic bacterial count in the raw milk with homemade impedance detector. Introduce homemade impedance detector’s work principle, tester’s configuration and test parameter’s enactment; analyse the effect of the sample’s cubage, raw milk’s protein content, fat content and aerobic bacterial count on detect result of impedance detector; do research about the change rule of aerobic bacterial count and detect time in raw milk; detect the time when raw milk’s resistance and electromotive force achieve threshold, combine linearity regress theory and method, build linearity regress mathematical model and standard curve of aerobic bacterial count and detect time; make contrast experiment with impedance detector and the method of agar counting to detect aerobic bacterial count in raw milk, make compare analysis to the two results. The main conclusion as follows:(1)The homemade impedance tester is used to detect the bacterial totall of the milk which is placed different days in the room. Checking the electromotive force and resistance of the sample milk get DT1 and DT2. The conclusion as follow: 1) With the milk’s bacterial total increasing, the DT1 which checking the electromotive force gets is reduced gradually. The reason is that if the cow milk is polluted by the bacteria, along with oxygenic being consumed an the reductive metabolizable production coming out, the redox force is fallen down gradually. So along with the bacterial total of the cow’s milk increasing, its metabolism quickens gradually, the electromotive force reduces more quickly, the time when the value is reached is more short.2) With the milk’s bacterial total increasing, the DT2 which checking the electromotive force gets is reduced gradually. The reason is that when the bacteria reproduce ,the nutrition element (for example the lactose, the protein, the fattiness) of the raw milk, the big molecule substances is coverted to the small molecule substances (lact-salt or ammonia). The milk’s resistance gets reduced. So along with the bacterial total of the cow’s milk increasing, its metabolism quickens gradually, the resistance reduces more quickly, the time when the value is reached is more short.(2)The variety of lactose、fattiness、protein’s content in the raw milk is no influence for the detected results. The DT’s error is between±0.03-±0.07h. The reasons as follow:1) They aren’t quite sterilized, so they are likely to take bacterial. Or when the milk is shared, is polluted outside. Consequently, the DT become short.2) When the milk is being detected, is mixed other bacteria, or disturbed from environment(for example the tremble, too high sound). These are the reasons that the error come out.(3) The standard curvilinear is set up and validate experimentantion, the conclusion as follow:1) The research indicates that the detect time DT received by testing sample milk’s resistance and electromotive force with impedance detector is shortened gradually as the aerobic bacterial count increased, that is the high aerobic bacterial count is, the smaller DT is.2) The research indicate that according to the principle of electric impedance detect method, test the electromotive force and resistance in sample milk and receive detect time DT1, make regression analysis with these received data, build standard curve and the regression equation is y? = 10.3671?0.6924x. Make hypothetic test of significance to regression equation and regression coefficients using F detect method, the results are all marked. Receive correlation coefficient r1= -0.9590, that is the relation of aerobic bacterial count and DT1 is high negative correlation.3) The research indicates that according to the principle of electric impedance detect method, test the electromotive force and resistance in sample milk and receive detect time DT2, make regression analysis with these received data, build standard curve and the regression equation is y? = 10.2728?0.6745x. Make hypothetic test of significance to regression equation and regression coefficients using F detect method, the results are all marked. Receive correlation coefficient r2= -0.9481, that is the relation of aerobic bacterial count and DT2 is high negative correlation.4) The research indicates that by the 7 parallel test of three quantitative level, validate the two above regression equation, make hypothetic test by t detect method, the result shows that the aerobic bacterial count detected by the two methods is the same as detected by the method of agar counting. The innovation of this thesis is:Using homemade impedance detector to detect aerobic bacterial count in the raw milk;Using homemade impedance detector to test electromotive force and resistance in raw milk, build two standard curves.
Handicraft of Light Archive
The milk performance of yaks with different birth,the contents of protein, fat, lactose, dry matter and ash in the yaks’milk were measured;the content of fatty acid in yaks’ milk fat was tested by.The results were compared with the counterparts of holstein,scalper. The pasture yield of alpine pasture and the nutrient component of the pasture in Tianzhu Tibetan Municipality, Gansu,were studied, too.The milk yield increased with the increase of the yaks’ birth. After fifth birth; the milk yield tended to decrease; the milk yield of third to fifth birth yaks in Nannigou pasture was significantly higher than that of their congener in Daiqian pasture and Wushaoling pasture (P<0.05) ,and the mean milk yield of the former in July and August was higher than that of the two later;the pasture production in Nannigou was higher than those in Daiqian and Wushaoling .The higher milk performance of yaks in Nannigou was attributed to the higher pasture production in the pasture.The contents of fat and protein in yaks’ milk from the 3 pastures were not significantly different(P>0.05 ),while the contents of fat and protein in yaks’ milk were exetremly significantly higher than those of Holstein milk(P<0.01).The contents of fatty acids in yaks’ milk from the 3 pastures were not significantly(P>0.05),indicating that the conditions of the pasture have no effect on the contents of fatty acid in yaks’ milk.The contents of fatty acids in milk of 1 to 5 birth yaks were not significantly different(P>0.05),showing that the different birth yak has the same physiological mechanism of synthesizing fatty acid.Contrasted with the contents of fatty acids of Holstein milk,the contents of unsaturated fatty acids(USFA) in yaks’ milk were significantly higher(P<0.05) and the contents of saturated fatty acids(SFA) in yaks’ milk were significantly lower(P<0.05),resulting from different genes and feeding patterns.The contents of SFA and USFA and the ratio between SFA and USFA were 65.05%,34.95% and 1.86 in fading period. The contents of SFA and USFA and the ratio between SFA and USFA were 63.61%,36.39% and 1.75 in end of fading period. The contents of SFA and USFA and the ratio between SFA and USFA were63.09%,39.02% and 1.62 in buding period. The contents of SFA and USFA and the ratio between SFA and USFA were56.96%,43.04% and 1.32 in flourishing period.With the rising of temperature and the mature of pasture,the contents of SFA in yaks’milk were declining while the contents of USFA were increasing.
Chitosan was chemically modified in different ways to probe their properties when used in soaping agents for reactive dyeing.The experiments showed thatderivations(N, O-CMCTS & NAOC)could remove effectively the loose color in the reactive dyeing to increase the soaping effect in reactive dyeing.Both of N,O-CMCTS and NAOC had good water-solubility and resistance to hardness of water.The first work of this paper is measuring physical properties of .Degree of deacetylation(DD)of chitosan determined by acid base titration is about 83%.The MW of chitosan by viscometry is about 1.0×10~5.The effect between chitosan derivatives and hydrolyzed was also studied.The result showed that the stability of micelles composed by NAOC and hydrolyzed was sensitive to its concentration.The soaping effect of both derivatives could hardly be affected by increasing their concentration due to the balance between chitosan derivatives and hydrolyzed .At the same time the conditions affect on the soaping effect of N,O-CMCTS and NAOC,such as the existence of inorganic salt and alkaline, complexation with anionic/nonionic surfactants,have been discussed in detail.The result shows that NAOC had stronger salt-resistance than N,O-CMCTS;the complexation of N, O-CMCTS/NAOC and nonionic surfactant had slightly better soaping effect than that when used separately;while the soaping effect of NAOC was remarkably removed by complexation with anionic surfactant.At last,the concentration of chitosan derivatives,the soaping temperature,time,and pH,et al.were studied when used in soaping agents for reactive dyeing respectively.On the base of experience of above experiment,the reaction conditions of chitosan derivations were systematically investigated through orthogonal design,and then the best conditions were found.N, O-CMCTS:0.50 g/L,90℃,20min,pH=10;NAOC:0.250 g/L,90℃,20min, pH=9.Compared with one of market soaping agents,N,O-CMCTS and NAOC could raise the friction degree and soaping degree by about 0.5 degree.
Studies on Fermentation and Antibacterial Characteristics of Compounded Ferments in the Imitated Mares Milk
Eleven strains of Lactic acid bacteria and four strains of Yeasts isolated from samples ofcollected from heardman,s house in Inner Mongolia were studied. Three restore ferments compounded from the same area’s sample and three crossing ferments compounded from the different area’s samples were obtained. The lactose contents of three kinds of imitated mare’s milk (P1:6.0g/100ml, P2:6.5g/100ml and P3:7.0g/100ml) produced by mixing of whole cow’s milk and demineraled whey at proper proportion were similar to that of mares’ milk. Through 72h fermentation by two restore ferments, results suggested four kinds of whey showed antibacterial property.But there were not significant differences of nature of antibacteria among them. Considering cost, two kinds of imitated mare’s milk (P1, P2) were chosen for further study. Inhibit property of three restore ferments and three crossing ferments were screened under the selected culture ( P1 , P2 ) , with culturing temperature of 28 ℃ ~30 ℃. Two restore ferments (a1, a3) and two crossing ferments (b2, b3) were identified from the six ferments. Then through changing culturing temperature to 37 ℃, two crossing ferments (b2, b3) with optimum antibacterial activity were obtained. Study on their inhibit property indicated that the greatest antibacterial activity showed during 48h in P1 by the two crossing ferments fermentation, and showed during 18h~22h in P2.The antibacterial activity of four kinds of whey were affected significantly by concentration, temperature and pH value. The thicker of whey, the stronger their antibacterial activity changed. As pH increasing, the higher temperature, the more the losses of antibacterial activity.
In this paper, oxidized starch by KMnO4 on the condition of acidityis studied.KMnO4 oxidization method has the advantages of high oxidativedegree, simple operation and low environmental pollution, so oxidizedstarch by KMnO4 has broad prospects.The research finds, in the process of KMnO4 oxidizing starch on thecondition of acidity, thatis activated manganese dioxide but not that directly oxidizes starch. This successfully explains the essence that the color of the emulsion changesin the process of KMnO4 oxidizing starch. Based on that theory, theactivation energy of oxidization process is calculated at 73.83kJ/mol.Meanwhile, a variety of factors that affect oxidized starch byKMnO4 are studied in this paper, including the temperature and theconcentration of KMnO4, H2SO4 and starch milk, and theoretically probesall kinds of influences.The experimentation proves that the speed of the reaction willincrease when the temperature rises, the speed of the reaction willincrease 2～3 times whenever the temperature raises 10℃, and thechanges of temperature have little effect on the carboxyl content ofoxidized starch. If the dose of H2SO4 goes up, the carboxyl content ofoxidized starch will increase, the reaction time will shorten, but the fieldsof the oxidized starch will decrease. If the concentration of KMnO4 rises,the carboxyl content of oxidized starch will increase, the speed of thereaction will increase, but the fields of the oxidized starch will decrease.The higher the concentration of starch is, the bigger the speed of thereaction is, but the concentration of starch has little effects on thecarboxyl content of oxidized starch.The most proper conditions of KMnO4 oxidizing corn starch are thatthe concentration of starch is 35%, that the amount of KMnO4 is 4% ofstarch, that the amount of H2SO4（98%） is 1.28 times of KMnO4, and thatthe temperature of the reaction is 55℃. The time of complete reaction isabout 70 minutes on those conditions. In addition, the analysis method of the carboxyl content of oxidizedstarch is still studied. finds through experimentation, that thecoordination titration method is more accurate and simpler than thetraditional starch paste method.The oxidized starch has been widely used in many industrial fields,such as paper, textile and food. This paper summarizes its ,and some compared experimentations have been done for the of the oxidized starch by KMnO4 in paper and corrugated paper adhesive.The new development of the of the oxidized starch isintroduced in this paper.
In this paper,was reviewed that development tendency of anti-crease s on natural fabrics at home and abroad. Preparation, finishing condition and effect of environmental fabric of silk fibroin on natural fibers are studied emphatically.The silk fibroin can be swelled firstly by CaCl2 , then decomposed by acid or enzyme. The lower molecular weight of silk fibroin after being hydrolyzed can be used with soluble cross – linked agent PU to cotton fabrics and with organic silicon to silk fabrics in order to increase anti-crease property.Comparing the three methods of preparing silk fibroin finishing agent, we concluded that the method with acid is the best. Cotton and silk treated with this kind of finishing agent were analyzed .The results showed.that the treated fabrics with this new agent had better crease resistance than that of the fabrics treated with conventional agents, in addition, showed better strength, softness moisture absorption and so on.Fibroin finishing agent is a kind of finishing agent without pollution and can be decomposed by microorganism. The assistant agents used in this finishing process can also be decomposed by microorganism in some degree. we can conclude that the Fibroin finishing agent is the most competitive agent in the 21 century.
Conformation and Functional Properties of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate/Polysaccharide Conjugates Synthesized by Ultrasound
Wheat gluten is a byproduct of the wheat starch industry. The use in food is limited by its water-insoluble characteristic. The aim of the present study was to modifyby reaction of gluten hydrolysate and polysaccharide subjected to ultrasound treatment for improving its and extending utilization. Optimal technological conditions and some rules of of the modified glutens changing were studied. Relation of composition/structure of the modified glutens to was analyzed. Moreover, the conjugates were also used in the milk emulsions.Two proteases (Protamex and Papain) were used to hydrolyze gluten protein. The conditions of reaction of gluten hydrolysate and polysaccharide were optimized. In single factor experiments, the effects of the degree of hydrolysis, weight ratio of polysaccharide to gluten hydrolysates, reaction time and pH value on the degree of reaction (DG) were investigated. Optimal conditions of gluten hydrolysate and Arabic gum for graft reaction were obtained by surface response design. The conjugate with the highest degree of graft(DG=23.56%) using DH8.8% of Protamex hydrolysate and Arabic gum could be obtained, when the most optimum conditions were as follows: the weight ratio of protein to polysaccharide 10:1, time 19min, pH9.2, temperature 80℃.The functionality of conjugates of Protamex hydrolysate and Arabic gum was studied. Solubility, thermal stability, emulsifying and foaming properties of the resultant conjugate were significantly (P<0.05) improved compared the hydrolysate and control. Solubility curve kept relatively plateau at pH3-10. No obvious pI was noticed. Nitrogen Solubility Index (NSI) was about 30% increases in acidic condition compared to the control. Emulsifying Stability (ES) had a clear improvement; was about 2.7 times of the control when DG is the maximum. Foam Stability (FS) in acidic condition was about 3.2 times of the control when DG is 14.8% and FS reached maximum.In secondary structure based on FT-IR, modification led to decrease and increase inα-helix andβ-structure ratio, respectively. The conjugate had the lowestα-helix/β-sheet ratio and the highest molecular flexibility. Microstructure of the modified glutens had great change based on SEM observation. The conjugates had less edges and corners than control. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, new broad bands of the conjugate subunits compared to control appeared in the upper regions of the separation gel and the glycosyl bands were seen more clearly. These illustrated macromolecular grafts emerged. Change in molecular weight distribution and structure of the modified gluten proteins resulted in improvement of flexibility and surface properties. These changes play an important role in improvement of functional properties.The conjugates were used as partial substitute for sodium caseinate in the imitated neutral emulsions. was an effective replacer to slow down enlargement of the d3,2 at the top and bottom of emulsions, creaming rate and centrifugal sedimentation rate when replaced about 10%-30% of the sodium caseinate. The imitated acidic emulsions showed low creaming rate and centrifugal sedimentation rate when conjugates were used as skim milk powder replacer in the emulsions to replace about 30% or 40% of the skim milk powder.
Effect of Mild Heat Pre-treatment on Cold Storage Quality in Fresh-cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharistuberose Schult)
（Eleocharistuberose Schult） （CWC） is injuried after minimumlly processed. There will be more physiological and biochemical reactions unbenefited for fruit storage, which can make fruit quality deterioration and shorten fruit shelf-life. （MHPT） is non-toxic, efficient, economic, safe and harmless to the human and environment, which may be concerned by more and more people recently.In this paper, the fresh-cut CWC were treated by heat water combined with modified atmosphere package, and a central composite rotation designed combine response surface methodology also used in the experiment design. The effects of heat treatment time, temperature and storage time on storage quality and nutrition content of fresh-cut CWC were studied in the paper. The treatment which can best inhibit fruit browning （58℃, 20 min） were used to anlysis the browning index （BI）, total phenol （TP） and flavonoid content, phenylalamine ammonialyase （PAL） activity, which may explain anti-browning mechanism in fresh-cut CWC by heat treatment. Meanwhile, we evaluated the fruit sensory quality with quantitative descriptive analysis and principal component analysis on the best anti-browning treatment. The results were as follows:1. Effect on fresh-cut CWC quality by MHPT（1）The model of DYI was Y=737．1416-24．844*X1-14．08333*X2+138．5307*X3+0．202121*X1*X1+0．454086*X1*X2- 1．607526*X1*X3-0．231567*X2*X2-0．453299*X2*X3-2．022502*X3*X3 Effects on fresh-cut CWC DYI by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X1 （heat treatment temperature） and X1 * X3 （the cross-term of temperature and storage time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 54℃in 20 min, and storage for 3 days, the minimum predictive value of DYI was 211.16.（2）The model of DA was Y=-4．88157+0．265497*X1+0．133329*X2-1．880605*X3-0．002684*X1*X1-0．005903*X1*X2+ 0．029531*X1*X3+0．005049*X2*X2+0．002778*X2*X3-0．038961*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC DA by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X3 （storage time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 52℃in 22 min, and storage for 3 days, the optimital predictive value of DA was -1.03.（3）The model of DB was Y=-563．766+11．8074*X1+9．01506*X2+52．20502*X3-0．104083*X1*X1+0．031273*X1*X2- 0．196042*X1*X3-0．253674*X2*X2-0．103056*X2*X3-1．549728*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC DB by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X3 （storage time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 55℃in 20 min, and storage for 3 days, the optimital predictive value of DB was -0.16.（4）The model of BI wasY=-13．12586-0．501611*X1+0．017973*X2+0．62717*X3+0．004278*X1*X1+0．002562*X1*X2- 0．013511*X1*X3-0．003581*X2*X2-0．004117*X2*X3+0．034815*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC BI by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X1 （heat treatment temperature）, X3*X3 （the square of storage time） and X1 * X3 （the cross-term of temperature and storage time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 58℃in 20 min, and storage for 5 days, the minimum predictive value of BI was 0.03.（5）The model of firmness wasY=-4382．3+187．7405*X1+38．52248*X2+90．67424*X3-1．341601*X1*X1+0．122685*X1*X2- 1．385417*X1*X3-1．265478*X2*X2+0．25*X2*X3-4．307243*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC firmness by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） infactors X1 （heat treatment temperature）, X3 （storage time）, X1*X1 （the square of heat treatmenttemperature） and X2*X2 （the square of heat treatment time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 64℃in 20 min, and storage for 4 days, the maximum predictive value of firmness was 2509.09N.（6）The model of fracturability wasY=-5026．33+184．2211*X1-17．27665*X2+218．6314X3-1．63926*X1*X1+0．358796*X1*X2- 1．234375*X1*X3+0．309212*X2*X2-0．861111*X2*X3-7．615962*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC fracturability by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X1*X1 （the square of heat treatment temperature） and X2*X2 （the square of heat treatment time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 56℃in 29 min, and storage for 8 days, the maximum predictive value of fracturability was 996.10N.2. Effect on nutrition content of fresh-cut CWC by MHPT（1）The model of ascorbic acid （AsA） wasY=2．147926+0．042608*X1-0．00388*X2+0．049781*X3+0．000053*X1*X1-0．002088*X1*X2- 0．010756*X1X3+0．0027*X2*X2-0．000397*X2*X3+0．038434*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC AsA by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X1 （heat treatment temperature） and X3*X3 （the square of storage time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 47℃in 20 min, and storage for 10 days, the maximum predictive value of AsA is 2.51mg/100g.（2）The model of total solid soluble content （TSS） wasY=95．46889-0．133824*X1-0．135795*X2-7．736579*X3+0．008338*X1*X1-0．036991*X1*X2- 0．082396*X1X3+0．043303*X2*X2+0．046806*X2*X3+0．751542*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC TSS by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X1 （heat treatment temperature） , X3 （storage time） , X2*X2 （the square of heat treatment time） ,X3*X3 （the square of storage time） and X1*X3 （the cross-term of temperature and storage time）.（3）The model of pH wasY=-4．39873+0．34586*X1+0．04376*X2+0．13277*X3-0．002949*X1*X1+0．001551*X1*X2- 0．004323*X1*X3-0．002646*X2*X2-0．002153*X2*X3+0．007488*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC pH by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X1 （heat treatment temperature） , X1*X1 （the square of heat treatment temperature） and X2*X2 （the square of heat treatment time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 59℃in 22 min, and storage for 3 days, the maximum predictive value of pH was 6.95.（4）The model of the ration of water loss （RWL） wasY=-5．4678+0．14147*X1+0．230417*X2+0．05776*X3-0．001247*X1X1-0．00136*X1*X2 +0．003244*X1*X3-0．003568*X2*X2-0．001611*X2X3-0．000192*X3*X3Effects on fresh-cut CWC RWL by MHPT were in a significant impact （0.05 level） in factors X1 （heat treatment temperature）, X3*X3 （the square of storage time） and X1 * X3 （the cross-term of temperature and storage time）. When the fresh-cut CWC treated under 58℃in 19 min, and storage for 3 days, the minimum predictive value of RWL was 0.81%.3. The experiment of anti-browning indicated that CWC fruit BI and PAL activity in control and heattreatment were increased during the storage. The BI, PAL activity, TP and flavonoid content of control fresh-cut CWC fruit were always higher than that of heat treatment.4. The main sense of fresh-cut CWC:（1） Color description language was white, yellow-green and brown; Texture description language was wetting, rough, fibrous and brittle; Flavor description language was fresh, com flavor, faint scent, alcohol flavor and taste moldy.（2） Quantitative descriptive analysis （QDA） showed that the heat treatment could effectively delay the discoloration of CWC slices, flavor and texture.（3） Principal component analysis （PCA） showed that there were three main components. The weight of the first principal component was 24.81%, and major features were milky white, yellow-green, brown and rough. The weight of the secend principal components was 22.33%, and major features were fresh, faint scent and mildew. The weight of the third principal components was 13.74%, and major feature was fibrous.
As economic and technological development, increasing people’s living standards,cartons have more and more variety and style. The requirements of decoration, structure and quality are also increasing. Relying on the traditional manual design methods could not meet the needs of community and market, and is also unable to adapt to the pace of the times. How to combine the national standard to the carton design is related to the carton production and the packed goods compete with other countries for world market. So is particularly urgent and important.Auto is one of wide used softwares in industry, but is not professional packaging design software. In order to more easily applied to packaging design, Auto is often secondary developed. The Auto software, development environment, China’s Corrugated Box Standard and the status of China’s were analyzed in this study. Features of the AutoCAD software used in corrugated packaging design were also summarized. Moreover, AutoCAD ActiveX technology was used for the secondary development of design system.The content of design are as follows:1. The carton design features were studied and practice experience was used for reference, conversion formula between the corrugated box size was concluded: inner dimension; manufacturing size = inner dimension + the thickness of paper + constant; outer dimension= manufacturing size + thickness of the paper + Constant, “size optional module” and “correction coefficients module” were designed.2. In accordance with various box features in national standards, identifying common features on size, the key parameters to control carton shape could be selected. Three size parameters: length (L), width (W), high (H) were selected as the constrained parameters for parameters design to design “parameter input module”. And according to types of carton box in national standards, “cartons choice module” was designed. 3. Different corrugating paperboard has different thickness, which is very important to the dimension of carton design, so, according to this, I designed a “material option module”.4. In practical production, we always need to use templet when protracting AutoCAD graphics, so I designed an “ templet module” to save the time that takes user to protract engineering templet, and improve efficiency.5. In AutoCAD visual development environment of was started, the corresponding project documents were established, and various modules, form, control, definition of the object attributes were added, and the procedure codes corresponding to objects were written to complete the whole design project.Compared with other packaging design software, the advantage of my search is that:1. The data of this system is based on national standards of corrugating paperboard and corrugating carton, which impenetrated the whole course of design.2. Using is more simple and convenient, interface is more friendly.3. The system has openness to offer a further exploitation to user and base exploitation to professional designers.4. The system supplies demonstration courseware for section of Packaging Engineering in university, and new thought in packaging engineering application for students.This system data use China’s corrugated boxes national standards for reference, to achieve parameters ichnography drawing on corrugated packaging design, greatly facilitate the mapping work, and play a role on promotion of the China’s corrugated box production standardization.
The paper studied on preparation of protein hydrolysate from fish waste of hairtail, deodrization and utilization of hydrolysate which will provide reasonable and scientific basis.The results showed as follows:1.The content of total protein from fish waste of hairtail was 16.44%,fat was 17.83%,moisture was 75.50%,ash was 13.85%.2.Single Enzyme hydrolytic experimentsIn the experiment,papain,pepsin, flavor enzyme, Neutral Proteinase, trypsin were used to hydrolyze fish waste of hairtail.The effect of temperature,time,enzyme amount,pH value and solid/liquid ratio on hydrolysis were studied through the method combining orthogonal.Through the analysis of experimental data,the optimal proteases were determined.They were papain and trypsin.3.Compound enzyme hydrolytic experimentsIn the experiment,The best compound enzyme were used to hydrolyze fish waste from hairtail, The effect of temperature, the amount of enzyme,pH value and time on hydrolysis were studied through the method combining orthogonal.Through the analysis of experimental data,the optimal condition were determined. The temperature 55℃,time 6h,the amount of enzyme 4%,pH value 7.5.showed that the temperature and the amount of enzyme was remarkable factor in the test through the variance analysis.4.Acid hydrolysisThe experiment of acid hydrolysis was studied in order to compare the effect of hydrolysis method on hydrolysis impact.The effect of temperature ,the concentration of acid,time and acid amount on hydrolysis were studied through the method of orthogonal trials.Through the analysis of experimental data,the optimum condition of acid hydrolysis was determined,the temperature 95℃,the concentration of HCl 6mol/L,time 6h,HCl solution/substrate ratio 6:1.The degree of hydrolysis at this condition is very high. the condition of acid hydrolysis was rigor, But the nutrient content of product was nearly destroyed,and the colour of hydrolysate was chocolate brown. So the main purpose of this paper is to compare with enzymatic hydrolysis. 5.Degreasing treatmentIsopropanol,hexane,Ethyl Acetate were used as extractant to degrease and compare with these degreasing effect respectively. The optimum degreasing reagent was Ethyl Acetate.6.Deodorizing treatmentThis research was mainly to study on fishy smell of protein hydrolysate of fish waste from hairtail by sensory evaluation, respectively using theβ-cyclodextrin,Gelatin,Starch and Activated Carbon in order to dedorizethis smell,investigated the protein loss rate and fishy smell and the optimum was Activated Carbon,adopted single factor and orthogonal experiment method,the temperature 65℃,time 40min,the content of Activated Carbon was 0.3%. Under this condition,not only reduce the protein loss rate,but also make the hydrolysate became light. showed that the Activated Carbon can make the colour of hydrolysate became clear and can be debitterized and decolored.The quanlity of protein hydrolysate was improved.7.The paper studied on the emulsifying property,foamability and foam stability from protein hydrolysate of fish waste from hairtail which will provide proper research basis.And the antioxidation capacity of hydrolysate used in grease system was preliminarily studied.It showed that compound enzyme of hydrolysate used in grease system exhibited antioxidative activity.8.The proportion of lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus:Lactobacillus bulgaricus= 1:1,seeding amount 2%,sugar concentration 1%,fermented for 36h unnder 42℃,the flavor of the fermentation liquid was the best.The fishy smell were removed.