In this paper, a research has been made on the multi-damage effect of explosion, both theoretically and experimentally. Four kinds of explosion damage effect were considered, i.e. the damages by shock wave, heat radiation, fragment and suffocation. The emphasis of analysis was putted on human and buildings.According to the experimental data obtained by field tests, the characteristic parameters of shock waves from explosive explosions were analyzed. The curves of overpressure and impulse vs scaled distance were first fitted and then used for the analysis of damages from the shock waves of 27kg different explosives to human and buildings. The results show that the high-energy fuel in the explosives can lead to a higher power output than the ordinary explosives, such as TNT. The damage effect of heat radiation was explored, and a computer program about radiation parameters was compiled in order to make the calculation of parameters be more convenient and intuitive. A simplified model of fragmentation was made, and the speed of fragment was measured through static field test. Based on the achieved data, damages to human was evaluated by kinetic energy. The evaluation shows that fragments by 60g explosive could make injury or death in less than 3m. Furthermore, the calculation of oxygen content was deduced and was applied for 70g explosive in a room with 70m volume. The damage effect of oxygen concentration was analyzed.A comprehensive method for evaluating the multi-damage effect of explosion was initially proposed, and a calculation formula of TNT equivalent was derived for thermobaric warhead. In addition, the evaluation method was verified by means of explosion field test, and multi-damages from shock wave and fragment to humen and building were analyzed, which has proved the rationality of the method.
Safety Science Archive
For the purpose of explosion prevention in industry and development of new conception weapons, the fundamental study of multi-point dispersal explosion has been carried out in combination of experiments with simulations. In this thesis, background and status about fuel dispersal research was firstly summarized, then fuel dispersal experiments were done to study the disciplinarian of fuel dispersal explosion and cloud formation, and the formulas for describing the relationship between the expanding diameter D and the time t(D-t curves)were fitted by the experimental data. In order to analyze the influence of different factors on fuel concentration, a computer program was compiled to simulate the fuel concentration of multi-point dispersal process on the MATLAB platform by combining with the D-t curves. The experiments on multi-point dispersal explosion were done by selecting one of liquid fuels as sample to study the dispersal and cloud formation, the overpressure, impulse and temperature of shock waves with the measurement techniques, such as photography, VXI measurement system of shock wave, infrared thermal imager. It was compared with a kind of explosive mixture and TNT under the same conditions. The results show that the speed of wind has significant influence on the process of fuel dispersal and cloud formation, and the concentration of multi-point dispersal process has presented a gradually decreasing tendency from center to circumference, the concentration effected mainly by dispersal rate but less by the dispersal time intervals and space distribution. It can be seen from the experimental results that in the process of multi-point dispersal explosion, the overpressure produced by the liquid fuel was higher than those of the explosive mixture and TNT, the temperature and impulse were little lower than those of the explosive but higher than TNT.
Road transport, both in quantity and variety, the transport of dangerous chemical are accounted for a considerable proportion. Because of dangerous chemical with flammable, explosive, poison, corrosive, radioactive properties, chemical the safe transport of dangerous chemical has been a road transport management focus on the target. With China’s rapid economic development, the transport of dangerous chemical demand for a rapid increase in the quality of transport and transport safety requirements have become more prominent. Therefore, the study of the transport of dangerous chemical management, and continuously improve safety awareness and management, and maintenance of healthy and stable socio-economic development, is of great realistic significance.Based on the classification of dangerous chemical, the main characteristics of dangerous chemical, as well as the road transport characteristics of the analysis, a combination of chemical enterprises transportation of dangerous chemical organizational processes the actual situation in the transport organizations in the process of carriers of dangerous chemical, the unsafe behavior, dangerous chemical transport vehicles, operational procedures, and packaging of goods by the existence of the risk of harmful factors are more detailed identification and analysis, and adopting a “pre-risk analysis” and “safety check table,” An objective analysis of the chemical enterprise all aspects of the transport of dangerous chemical existing problems, both at home and abroad from transportation of dangerous chemical advanced management experiences, the transportation of dangerous chemical management is the key practitioners, transportation of dangerous chemical and the fundamental safety management transport vehicles, transportation of dangerous chemical management is the foundation of sound management system, the establishment of information networks and rescue accident contingency plans, such as the transport of dangerous chemical safety measures and recommendations.This paper presents the “pre-risk analysis” and “safety check table”, as well as the transport of dangerous chemical safety management measures and proposals, not only will be able to objectively analyze and solve the company in transportation of dangerous chemical in the process of organizations exist, on the other dangerous chemical transport companies also have some reference.
Study on the Safety Economy Capability Maturity Model and Safety Investment Decision Model in Petrochina ChangQing Oilfield Company Oil Production Plant No.1
Nowadays the society faces the reality is: Humanity’s science and technology capability and the economic capability are limited, the people subjectively expected realizes humanity’s security with many investments as far as possible, this kind of limited safety investment and the maximization safety level request’s contradiction is the basic power of safety economic survival and the development.The capacity maturity model (CMM) is a model which stresses on the process appraisal, this paper use the CMM’s theory and method, with the characteristic of safety economic activity process, constructed safety economic capacity maturity model (SE-CMM); In view of the maturity appraisal result, established the safety investment decision model with the safety decision theory, provided the optimal security investment decision for enterprise’s safety investment, thus provided a new way to discover the question and solve the problem in the safety economy for the enterprise.This paper set PetroChina ChangQing Oilfield Company Oil Production Plant NO.1 as the actual example, appraises its maturity grade with the economic capacity maturity model, displayed the deficiency in its economic activity process by relative plot, convenient for restore the safety economic activity in Production Plant NO.1; Then use the safety investment decision model to instruct the safety investment decision for Production Plant NO.1, solved the safety economic problem macroscopically for it, provided the foundation to obtained the biggest security benefit, provided the safety economy safeguard to sustained development in Production Plant NO.1.
Secure production is the premise and the basis of the continuous development of the whole society, which is the concrete manifestation to the scientific concept of people foremost. Modern science and technology changes rapidly, thus production technique develops and updates continuously, which lead to the increase of safety accidents year by year. According to statistical analysis of all kinds of safety accidents in production and the domestic industry, the status of production accidents is pessimistic and the security situation remains severe, which result in negative impact on socio-economic situation and constraints healthy development severely.Lack of the mechanism or theories of the production accident resulted in people failing to recognize it clearly. What caused the accident has not been analyzed roundly and systemically. The accident will be avoid or the accident will be decreased as low as possible if the reasons of the accident were known clear, and meanwhile an advisable method was adopted.There are several uncertain factors in the prevention and control of accident because of the mechanism and evolvement laws are complex. Based on the theory of many scholars, this paper put forward several models, such as directional energy assemble model, directional energy radiation model, non-directional energy radiation model. This provides a novel method to analyse the reason of the accident and the kinetic rules of the gestation, occurrence, development and elimination. In terms of the character of accident energy information, as uncentralize, disunion, non-system, and non-emersion. The accident information models were established considering accident energy system, information granularity, and Rough theory. At the same time, the accident time and space sequence methods were advanced, which provided novel approach to get information of accident energy accurately.Compared to the traditional accident analysis method, the novel accident energy system exhibited character of vertical and visual, which reflect the truth and evolvement laws of accident roundly. And explain the accident mechanism clearly. This work may be useful to the guidance of accident prevention and control.
Frequently occurrence vicious accidents lead to tremendous losses of people’s lives and property. It is difficult to carry out real-time monitoring hazards which using traditional method of safety monitoring, and hidden dangers maybe buried. Therefore, it is a very urgent issue for safety supervision and administration departments that how to take full usage of modern network communications technology and computer technology to improve the efficiency of production safety supervision. The thesis is based on national scientific and technological support projects “Big cities major hazards monitoring and safety production integrated systems development”, making a research and development of Networking-Tank Monitoring System which is short by N-TMS. N-TMS uses computer hardware and software technology, making remote monitoring and automation management for tanks, and achieve comprehensive security management for tank-owned enterprises.The thesis sums up the development of monitoring technology at home and abroad, uses theories and methods such as system engineering, safety engineering, information science and control science, according to the design ideas of independent modules and security features, raises the model of N-TMS, studies structural components and modules integration of monitoring system, as well as analyzing data structure design. Meanwhile, taking the comprehensive requirements of data transmission and environment situation, and using BP neural network, builds a green channel between areas of tanks and monitoring center. It is effectively guaranties the real-time and reliability of the monitoring system. In addition, making Industrial gas companies as research objects, initially authenticates the two main functions, green channel and leakage accident rapid assessment, and the results show that the monitoring system has a good practical. At last, from data acquisition and data processing optimize, forms performance optimization approach of N-TMS.
China is the world’s first coal power, coal is the base of China’s national economic and social development. Shanxi Province is widely known as coal,and is also a large province of china’s coal production, coal conveyance and energy and heavy chemical industry base. Shanxi’s coal reserves, production and sales are the first in the country. Shanxi develop its economy owing to the coal,coal industry in Shanxi Province has become the pillar industry and leading industry. From the mid-1980s, Shanxi Province responsed to the national appeal of “a fast flow of water” to begin free transfer of mining rights, the state-owned ,collective,and individuals all exploited small coal mines.In that time,individuals enjoyed free coal resources and get a clear gain, the relevant management was in disorder, all in the city (prefecture) and county departments of the availability of coal a approvals, will open coal mine. Therefore, in recent years, various large and small mines in Shanxi Province so that Shanxi coal mine production safety situation become the focus of widespread attention, and also reflects China’s coal mine production safety management performance is not satisfactory, National coal mine production safety situation is very grim. China’s coal mine production safety issues which become in the focus of the national production safety directly restrict the health of China’s coal industry development.The coal industry is the most serious casualties of the industry in China’s industrial production, accidents is the first place in the nation’s first all sectors, coal mine accidents each year in the number of deaths 6000 or 7000 casualities million tons mortality and deaths are higher than the world’s other major production in other Coal countries. Owing to the above analyze, mine has become difficult to solve. China’s frequent coal mines present the most significant governance problem rather than deal to the matter after coal mining accident occurred.In present,the most significant problem of putting in order of china’s mine is frequent in coal mining accident, so we should be correctly position, clear thinking, coal mining accident should shift to how to prevent the occurrence of coal mine. Unlike coal mine floods, SARS and other natural disasters,coal mine accident has the larger human factors. It is a major performance as “man-made disasters” .Because of the man-made factors lead to the frequent coal mining accident,the government should reinforce prevention and early warning to eliminate the influence of man-made factors.So strengthening the management in the government is of great significance. First the paper presents the situation of China’s coal production, the introduction of large amounts of data is used to analyse China’s coal production,and elaborates the causes of the surface and deep-seated causes resulted in exposition of China’s coal mining accidents detailly.And then from the crisis management direction aims to explore and strengthen and improve the Government’s crisis management functions to play curbing the frequent coal mine in a role in order to resolve the current frequency of the coal mine accident and provides a new perspective of thinking.On the basis of China coal mine accident in accordance with the frequency of the current situation, the government should realize the importance of preventing the coal mine accidents and actively set up the mechanism of mine emergency management. Meanwhile, the Government is the ultimate main of defining property rights,using property rights system of the mine to promote the change of property rights is more fundamental strategy. The Government must strengthen the supervision and control of enterprises, develop government function and strengthen the education and training for all employees in the coal safety crisis,improve the cultural quality of practitioners; strengthen security and cultural development, build is a long-term mechanism of crisis management; Establish and improve a comprehensive crisis management coordination departments to enhance mine crisis management decision-making system,enhance decision-making system of innovation; improve legal system building related crisis management and severely punish acts of lawlessness.
As the development of modern society, safety of manufacturing has become the key factor of the improvement of a factory, an area even a country. A lot of companies have realized the importance of the safety and healthy of their employees. These companies have used almost all the technical methods to improve safety but there is very little that technique can do. So many researchers turn to study some none-technical method, such as organizational factors. Safety climate is one of the factors that has influence on safety behavior and performance, which means the shared perception of matters relating to safety between employees.Now researchers from China also start to do some searches on safety climate (CS), but the lack of tool to measure SC slowed their steps. So this research tries to develop a tool to measure it and test the determinants and consequences.This research develops a 21-item tool to test SC and a 10-item tool to test safety performance. By delivering these questionnaires to 299 employees from 12 companies and doing statistics analysis, we get the conclusions as follows:(1) SC is composed of four factors—-perception of safety importance,perception of safety environment, safety trust and safety controllability.(2) Safety performance is composed of personal safety performance andorganazitional safety performance.(3) Safety commitment, supervisor monitoring and management participation have significant correlation with SC and safety performance.(4) Safety controllability, perception of safety importance, perception of safety environment and safety trust have significant influence on safety performance.(5) SC plays a role of mediate between safety management and safety performance. (6) There is a significant difference between the safety performance of a high-SC company and a low-SC company.
In petrochemical industry,fire accident by flammable gas is more serious dangerous among all kind of fire accident,at the same time,this kind of fire is a difficult problem in fire control region in the world.Research aimed at fire and explosive accident caused by flammable gas in petrochemical is very important.It can help of developing disaster control system,preventing and controlling this kind of fire accident and reducing casualty.Based of the reasons above LPG(Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is selected to be studied.Conclusions of this article are:(1) LPG fire accident mechanisms and risk control mode is established;corresponding mode framework,methodology base and security analysis is given by this paper based on LPG fire and explosion accident mechanisms research.According to case and the research method,fire accident mechanisms and hazard control mode of a LPG storage and distribute station is given.Approaches are:three kind of hazard identification;FTA;aftereffect analysis of UVCE and BLEVE;ICI Mond fire,explosive,toxicity index assessment;hazard control research;Security research and conclusions.(2) Based on the method given by the research of LPG fire mechanisms:①According to the three kind of hazard theory,hazard is identified in a LPG storage zone.The main danger substance is LPG which is the 1st class hazard;LPG reaches to a flammable concentration is the 2nd class hazard;management bug is the 3rd class hazard.②LPG tank explosion as the root of fault tree analysis,by FTA,not-to-happen approach is finding out.Furthermore,according to analyzing the structural importance factors of basic events,we know how dose basic events affect root of fault tree.③Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the fire and explosion accident of LPG storage zone are researched.Main accident possibility occurs in LPG storage zone-UVCE and BLEVE accident consequence analysis.The result shows that UVCE and BLEVE accident will cause casualties and property losses over a considerable extent. Especially BLEVE is more serious.Quantitative analysis of LPG storage zone fire and explosion accident is made by ICI Mond fire,explosive,toxicity index assessment.Before and after safety precautions,prognostication of fire and explosion in LPG storage zone is given.(3) Combining result of hazard identification and not-to-happen approach,based of inherent safety theory,this article gives fire and explosion control measure and suggestion on Man-Machine-Environment and management aspects. ①Human fault control measure is established to preventing human fault,making fault harmless and controlling result.②Storage tank and facility control measure is mainly essence safty design;selecting high quality raw materialsraw materials;maintain tank and facility functioning well;ignition sources control.The main ignition sources are naked light,electric spark,static spark,strike spark,high temperature object,thunder spark and radio frequency electric.③Environment control measure is mainly improving and creating safety and comfortable working Environment to preventing human fault.④Management control measure is mainly establishing safety system;strengthen safety education and train,safety check,etc.Simultaneity,corresponding emergency measure pointed to secondary accident is taken to minimize the casualty loss(4)Security analysis:Using designed safety control measure check list,check out the risk control measure.Result shows that the risk control measure is pertinence and effective. Safety assessment contrast between before and after risk control measure shows that taking risk control measure can descend the fire charge,explosion index,gas explosion index and colligation risk index.Risk control measure is effective;the measure can achieve the anticipated result.
The research of fire science is limited by the complication of combustion, the costliness of equipments for experiments and the measures. As the development of computer technology, the research of fire modeling is being paid attention to gradually nowadays.Firstly, this thesis discussed the current situation and some major theoretical approach on the current fire modeling study that is to say numerical simulation. Zone modeling is chosed ultimately combining with the task on the basis of advantages and disadvantages respectively of expert system, network model, zone model and field model. The investigation of building fire should begin with the law of fire development explored in the two-compartment, especially in the field of multi-compartment research. So CFAST widely applied to zone modeling is chosen as theoretics for the thesis.The model establishment of fire process is accomplished according to exploring the CFAST theoretics deeply with gaining the differential equations and mathematical physics equations which are going to solve, i. e. zone model theoretics is expressed with mathematical physics model equations. Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is chosen as the numerical method for the thesis with comparing various ones because Ordinary Differential Equations should be solved in the thesis. Programmes are designed with the mathematical software Maple version 9 then solving different fire scenarios. Finally fire scenarios are simulated with CFAST comparing the results gained from both methods. The model research about building fire in two-compartment is authentic according to comparison. The aim in this thesis is to make the programmme have expansibility and provide the base for adding the improved fire model particularly the heat radiation model. Conclusions which are drawn from investigations above to some extent can serve as references for computational modeling research of fire science, which hence provide practical application for development of indoor fire.