Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important processes converting heavy oil to light oils. The character of FCC determines that the process and equipment will face many risks. A safely and smoothly running of the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) becomes the focus of safety management in the enterprise.Taken FCCU of Sinopec Xian branch as research object in this paper, the basic processing technology and its principles of FCC was introduced, the hazardous sources were distinguished. According to the process of FCC, the FCCU was divided into reactor-regeneration system, fractionation system and absorption-stabilization system. Then it used the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis method (FMEA) to analyze those three systems. The main failure modes and effects of each system were found out, the conclusions and suggestions were also given.Divided FCCU into the reaction-regeneration, fractionation, absorption- stabilization, desulfurization -sweetening and CO combustor. Then the fire risk of each system was assessed with DOW chemical fire and explosion indexes. The fire risk grade and accidental severity of every process section was determined.Considering the faults of conventional AHP-Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation, the Fuzzy Evaluation Method Based on Entropy optimal Theory was introduced to safety evaluation. Through analyzing venture influential factors of FCCU, a systematic index system of venture evaluation was established. Then using Fuzzy Evaluation Method Based on Entropy optimal Theory to quantitative analyze the interior and exterior venture factors of FCCU. The results show that the potentially hazardous of reactor- regeneration system was highest, the sequence of the potentially hazardous of the othe four systerm was: absorption-stabilization, CO combustor, fractionation, desulfurization-sweetening. The major factors for equipment failure are coking and corrosion of metals, it should pay attention in the production process.
The leakage accidents of the oil pipeline not only lead to huge economic loss to the enterprises, but also pollute the environment. So it is of great importance to design an effective system to detect and position oil pipeline leak. The paper accomplished the development of real-time detection system for oil pipeline leak based on LabVIEW combined sensor technology, digital signal processing technology and communication technology.In this paper, the common methods for leakage detection have been researched. The paper compared the advantages and disadvantages of each method. While making the general consideration toward the actual situation of DAQING oil factory, the pressure combined with flow method for detecting leakage and the negative pressure wave method for locating leakage were proposed. Firstly, this paper described the principle of the negative pressure wave location, because the false positive rate of system only based on negative pressure wave method will be higher in different conditions, so it is necessary to make sure whether there is a leakage on the pipeline firstly so that the system can position the leakage of pipeline by the negative pressure wave method when leak happens. Secondly, this paper described and solved the key technical problems during building the system; include building the wireless data communication net by the spread spectrum technology, the synchronization problem between the stations in system and the mathematical formula of the negative pressure wave speed. The paper solved the synchronization problem via software method; it is accomplished by matching the time of one station plus the time delay during the transportation with another one. Though Timing Synchronization is less precise in comparison with the traditional GPS time service, it provides the approaches with lower cost. The paper gave the mathematical relationship between the negative pressure wave speed and the temperature of oil, and analyzed the changes of temperature along pipelines, and then built the linear correction model of the negative pressure wave speed, the precision of the system location has been improved.The part of the data process, which will affect the accuracy of distinguishing and positioning the leakage, is significant to the whole system. The wavelet analysis has more advantage on processing the non-stationary random signals than the traditional Fourier transform, so the wavelet analysis processed the signals is a better choice. In this paper, wavelet threshold helps to accomplish filtering the noise and find out the best approach to filter the noise by analyzing the Symlets and Daubechies Signal filtering and Feature Points Extraction has been accomplished with the help of MATLAB on the LabVIEW platform.This paper accomplished the selection of the hardware by analyzing the detection methods, and designed all of the modules of the system based on LabVIEW, which proves to be in stable operation in the past year.
The isolation and analyses of the organic components in oil shale make an important significance in oil shale chemistry research and oil shale efficient utilization. In order to investigate the organic chemical compositions in oil shale, during this issue, the Yilan oil shale from Heilongjiang province was extracted sequentially from under mild condition with low polarity solvent (petroleum ether), middle polarity solvents (toluene, dichloromethane ,chloroform and THF), high polarity solvent (ethanol). At last, the structure of the extractives were analyzed and identified by GC/MS, UV, LC/MS and FTIRThe experimental results of the structural analysis of sequential extracts of Yilan oil shale showed that the main compounds in petroleum ether extracts were C15～C31 n-alkanes. However, the main peak C17 in the carbon oil shale zone (<C21) has no obvious parity exchange principles. According to these illustrations that the algae, fungi and other lower plants input in the Yi-lan oil shale during the early time. In addition, in the high carbon region (>C21), n-alkanes shows a significant parity exchange principles with the peak C27 and C29, this indicates that yi-lan oil shale is abundant in type C3 terrestrial higher plants, oil shale extraction rate of 2.221%;The extracts of toluene were made up by the ramification of benzene and naphthalin. Besides, the measured out biotic tag of n-alkanes have found the Pristine and Hopane. Also, the pristine existence shows that yilan oil shale has gone through a long period of weak oxidation environment in the deposition process. Because the inputting of the bacteria, especially the class Hopane bacteria were verified further by the founder of hopanes, oil shale extraction rate of 1.872%;The special compound tests in the dichloromethane extracts are (z,z)-9,12-octade cadienoic acid, 2,2′-methy -lenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) and Cholesterol, the oil shale extraction rate is 1.712%; the relative abundance of 2,2′-methylenebis(4-methyl- 6-tert -butylphenol) in chloroform extracts was high, and the oil shale extraction rate achieve 1.557%; oxygen derivatives in the THF extractive, the oil shale extraction rate is 2.542%; polymers composed of 113 were separated from the ethanol extractive, and the oil shale extraction rate is 3.281%.During this project, the total oil shale extraction rate of extracted sequentially under mild condition achieved 13.187%. The analysis of all levels extractives showed that the methods of sequential extraction can achieve the separation of component in oil shale, which was benefit to structure analysis of the extractive. Furthermore, it is the basis of experiment from the composition and structure research that besides the extraction of chemicals, and separation from the macromolecular compounds and identifications the classification in oil shale.
As the major strategic material and chemical material, oil has an important influence in national economic development of a country. In recent years, with the rapid development of China economy and the constantly accelerating of industrialization, the demand for oil increases growingly, while the domestic oil production lags far behind, so resulting in a gap between its supply and demand has expanded year-by-year, the demand for foreign dependency has increased, and the influence of substantial fluctuations of international oil price on China macroeconomic becomes more and more obvious. How to understand this influence comprehensively and systematically, which has great significance for stabilizing domestic prices, avoiding the risk of oil imports and establishing China’s energy strategy.To solve this problem, we can find that international oil price fluctuations and inflation may be closely related to each other after a comparative analysis of them, the continued rise in oil price will lead to cost-push inflation. Based on a massive literature research, through theoretical analysis, we find out the transmission mechanism from international oil price fluctuations to the effects of inflation. Then, using relevant data about them to do statistical analysis of their association, and researching on the impact of domestic related industry based on the analysis of the specific pathway which the international oil price affects the inflation in China. Finally, by establishing co-integration model and vector error correction model, we analysis the long-term balance and short-term fluctuation between them. Co-integration test shows that international oil price and China’s inflation rate are in a long-term balance and the international oil price has big influence on inflation. Through the vector error correction model, we know the error correction term has a reverse correction mechanism for the rate of inflation when the short-term fluctuations deviate from the long-term equilibrium, but this mechanism does not work on international oil price, and in the short term, the inflation rate will be subjected to lag one month and two months’positive role from international oil price. Granger causality tests show that international oil price is the unidirectional granger causality of our inflation rate, which shows further more that international oil price have an impact on inflation in China. Moreover, we make the imitable analysis for international oil price having an impact on inflation in China, so we can test the model that has stronger stability, and this model can make explanation and analysis for inflation’s change. With the consideration of China’s actual situation and the conclusions of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, giving the relating policy suggestions to respond to international oil price fluctuations at the end of this paper.
As the development of economy, the western financial management theory has achieved remarkable results. By means of research and discussion about the theory of financial affairs governance structure, and combined with the specific conditions in China to provide the reference for our country’s financial governance structure of listed companies. The theory of financial management has long history, but presently the current is mainly about the definition of financial management, financial management system framework; the establishment of financial management content generalize basic theory of financial management. Scholars have discussed the financial management and financial governance structure from different way, which establishes the important theoretical basis for the form and development of financial management. The research about theory of financial management in our country fully used and developed the western corporate governance theory, and innovated the theory with Chinese physical truth, proposed “property” and “financial governance structure” and so on a series of concepts. Now, we have established the framework of financial management theoretical initially, and promoted the development of financial management theory. The research which used in financial management of the domestic listed companies, has been more perfect.The article mainly research the meaning of financial governance structure, and corporate governance structure .And study the main content of financial affairs governance structure, the related theoretical basis, and the three financial governance structure analysis and comparison of the model with the conditions listed companies in China itself further perfect financial governance. The core of financial affairs governance structure is property configuration. The possessor provided financial resources for the company , for themselves. In the meantime they enjoy some rights and responsibilities, but must be responsible for financial risk. Perfect governance structure can promote the development of business, which should more effectively use the enterprise’s financial resources from internal and external.The essay analyse the financial affairs of China Petroleum and Natural Gas specificly. It provide for company financial governance, through the three foreign financial governance model of comparative analysis. This article provides thinking and suggestions for China’s oil and gas Co., by means of reducing state-owned shares in financial management, improve the structure of creditors to reasonable position and reasonably effective for property configuration.
Microbial enhanced oil recovery is result of enhancing the oil recovery by the interaction of the microorganisms and reservoirs. Currently, the mechanism of microbial enhanced oil recovery is inclined to be analyzed from the perspective of the physiology and biochemistry, namely the perceptual knowledge about what are the microorganisms, its metabolites and their effects can be acquired. However, about enhancing oil recovery by microorganisms and metabolites, the effect of each part can’t be described quantitatively. So according to the microbial metabolism and the reservoir characteristics, the mechanisms of microbial enhanced oil recovery are comprehensively analyzed and then the ability of the microorganism and the metabolites enhanced oil recovery can be determined in the paper, which give full play to the effect of the microbial enhanced oil recovery.On the basis of the microbial metabolic regularity and the oil/water percolation mechanism, through comprehensive analysis of the composition and supply characteristics of the nutrients, the geology and fluid characteristics and migration rule of microorganisms in porous media, the microbial metabolite concentration and the pattern of the microbial retention and aggregation are researched using the law of conservation of mass and the laboratory experiment. And the oil displacement efficiency of the microbial metabolite was analyzed from the perspective of reservoirs.The study suggests that the microbial metabolite concentration is limited in reservoir, which is difficult to reach the chemical concentration and gas amount required by starting the retaining oil in chemical flooding and gas flooding; however the microorganisms have a tendency to stay in the porous media of the reservoir, which is beneficial to the profile control or deep profile control. Moreover, the microbial metabolite concentration besides the remaining oil has higher than elsewhere, which are significant for driving the remaining oil in the pore space. Because the massive amounts of the microorganisms carried by the water were retained near the remaining oil. In addition, it is more favorable to play the effect of the microbial enhanced oil recovery combining with the methods of the hydrodynamics in reservoir.
With the rapid development of the Chinese economy, the demand for oil is increasing. Diesel oil has been used in boiler, however, due to the shortage of fuel oil and the increasing international oil price, oil costs have become the main expenditure in boiler operation. In order to reduce the costs of production and provide power to enterprises in a more competitive manner, this paper presents research on the use of low-cost synthetic fuel oil substituting for diesel oil ignition. The main points are as follows:Through experimental research, a method for preparation of synthetic fuel oil was determined. Several types of synthetic fuel oil with different water content were made according to this method. The relationships between viscosity of synthetic fuel oil and changes in water content and temperature were obtained by analyzing experimental results. The factors relating to the stability of synthetic fuel oil were discussed. A platform for ignition experiments on synthetic fuel oil was set up. Using this platform, the ignition experiments were successfully performed.Based on the prototype of an industrial boiler, a three-dimensional numerical simulation of combustion of synthetic fuel oil in the boiler was conducted with the computational fluid dynamics software (Fluent). In the simulation, the non-premixed combustion model, the realizable k-epsilon viscous model, P1 radiation model, particle trajectory model and atomization model were adopted. The distribution of temperature field and velocity field in the boiler were plotted from the data of calculation, and the highest tempeture is 1374K. By comparing data from industrial application and numerical simulation, the relative error was found to be less than 10%.Combustion experiments with the synthetic fuel oil were carried out and the related parameters were tested in industrial boilers. In the combustion experiments, the stability of the combustion flame with synthetic fuel oil was observed. Moreover, data on the boiler combustion efficiency and exhaust gas emissions were obtained. The economical efficiency of ignition with synthetic fuel oil and diesel oil was analyzed. The company can save at least 332 thousand yuan in the boiler ignition every year.
The Exploration on the Mechanism of Multiple Fracture and Acidification in Hydraulic Fracturing of CBM Well
CBM, known as “gas”, has been regarded as a kind of harmful gas during coal mining, and been used less. Along with the progress of science and technology and the adjustment of the world energy structure, world gradually realized that CBM is a kind of precious clean energy. Therefore, CBM as a kind of important unconventional natural gas is more and more attention from all walks of life. Hydraulic fracturing technology of vertical CBM Wells is one of the main stimulation measures during CBM exploitation, but the facts that many CBM wells’production capacity after hydraulic fracturing fails to reach the anticipated goal and adjacent Wells’ production capacity namely large difference which belong to Huabei company of CNPC in Qinshui basin, show that the theory and technology of oil & gas hydraulic fracturing can’t satisfy the need of CBM wells’hydraulic fracturing. Based on the analysis of coal’physical mechanics properties and fractures properties and the summary of previous research work, this paper argues that it may be not a single symmetric hydraulic fracture but multiple form complex hydraulic fracture when implementation of hydraulic fracturing in coal the features of which is many natural fractures, special properties mechanical and regional differences. In addition, that the part of the coal’s fractures was filled by minerals such as calcite and dolomite also reduced the production of the CBM wells in a certain extent.The multiple fracture theory is the hydraulic fracturing frontier theory, especially for the coal the fractures, physical and mechanical properties of which is different from homogeneous sandstone. The study of multiple fracture theory is difficult and faces many problems. Based on the previous base theory research, this paper formed a set of ideas about researching the multiple fracture problem and acidification in CBM wells which can improve the production capacity. Then based on the basic theory of elastic mechanics, rock mechanics, fracture mechanics and fluid mechanics and the PKN model, this paper discussed how the construction condition(fracturing time, discharge and fracturing fluid properties, etc) and objective stratum condition influent the development of hydraulic fracturing fracture. The enhancement of coal’s permeability and principal stress difference can make width and length of hydraulic fracture and steering radius decrease. The decrease of fracturing fluid’s pattern index and viscosity and the increase of flow can make the width of hydraulic fracture increase, and the increase of width of hydraulic fracture is beneficial to the implementation sand-up fracturing. Compared with the original calculation of this mathematical model, the method proposed in this paper adopting time as base step was more simple and intuitive, besides it considered the change of filtration in initial phase and during fracturing process, which made the original PKN model improved.Based on the analysis of stress field of coal near by the hydraulic fracture, the paper found that sub-fracture of tension easily formed in the area near the well and sub-fracture of shear formed in the area far from the well more easily in process of coal fracturing.After the theoretical analysis, we known the multiple fracture theory, then this paper discussed the form of the multiple fractures in the coal seam which has many natural fractures. Based on the improved calculation of the PKN model, the paper established the extended model of multiple two-dimensional fractures considering closing stress interference, the change of filter, crack steering, flowing and so on at the same time. Then it obtained the change rule of multiple hydraulic fractures’ width and length, the change rule of flow inside and the factors which control the link of several hydraulic fractures after the calculation of multiple hydraulic fractures which extend at the same time. Due to the change of steering radius causing by the different emissions allocation, two hydraulic fractures whose starting angles were different could link together while they were extend at the same time. This model was used in natural fracture of coal seam, namely the crack develop in different direction on hydraulic fracturing. Through combining with the simulation technology method, we presented the influence on multiple cracks by natural fractures and bottom-hole pressure in natural fracture of coal seam. In addition, this paper was put forward the theory of near wellbore advantage which was fit the study of fractures form of hydraulic fracturing in vertical CBM wells, and then it given the factors which influence the form of coal hydraulic fractures and the form of the hydraulic fractures on the theory of near wellbore advantage. After that this paper summarized and analyzed the effect of hydraulic fracturing by multi-fracture systematically.After the composition analysis of coal samples and known that part of the nature fractures of coal rock were filled by mineral such as calcite and dolomite, the paper combined with acidification experience of oil & gas wells, and it was put forward program of acidification in coaled methane well and done acidification experiment on coal samples. From the experimental results, we found that substances in the fractures were dissolved easily in acid water, and the permeability of the coal samples was increased several times, some reached more than 40 times. This afforded basic indoor theory for acidification in CBM well.The research of multiple hydraulic fractures is a system study, especially for the special nature of coal reservoir. This paper, only based on two-dimensional, discussed the possible form and factor of multiple hydraulic fractures and done the experimental study of coal acidification indoor. But there were many insufficiencies, and further study and exploration remains to be developed.
In the literature review part of this paper, we mainly discussed the study progressof chitosan, palygorskite and polyvinyl alcohol. Firstly, we introduced the physicaland chemical properties of chitosan, list research progress of chitosan film, such ascrosslinked film, quaternary ammonium compound film, blend film, hybridmembrane, ultrafiltration membrane and self assembled membrane. Secondly, wediscussed the characteristic of palygorskite, cited its research progress in adsorption,cocatalyst, polymerization and other areas in recent years. Finally, the physical andchemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol were also introduced, as well as its solution,film forming and application.Based on the literature review and theoretical exploration, the experimental partof the paper include the following:Bases on the above review, the dissertation included following research contents:1. Palygorskite was treated with different concentrations of acetic acid andhydrochloric acid. A new blending composite film was prepared with chitosan,acidified palygorskite and polyvinyl alcohol as raw material, and 6 methylenediisocyanate as crosslinking agent. The structure of the film was characterized by themethods of FT IR, XRD, TG DTA and SEM, meanwhile the mechannical property ofit was also tested. Compared with chitosan film, the crystallinity and transparency ofchitosan composite film has declined, and thermal stability is significantly enhanced,as well as mechanical property. We also discuss how the feed ratio, acid solution,crosslinking agent and other factors affect on composite film preperation. Theoptimum preparation condition is following: the quanlity feed ratio ofchitosan,polyvinyl alcohol, palygorskite is 1:1:1, with 10% lactic acid dissolvechitosan , crosslinking agent is HDI, temperature is 20℃.2. The behavior of chitosanβcyclodextrin membranes adsorbing o , m , and p nitrophenol in water solution were studied. The rearch emphasised on how thedifferent acidity, temperature and time conditions influenced chitosanβcyclodextrinmembranes adsorbing p nitrophenol. The result showed that the adsorption capacityto p nitrophenol of these membranes was better in neutral condition. The sorptionisotherm was fitted with the Langmuir equation and Freundlich equation. As a result,the adsorption of adsorbent to p nitrophenol was more in line with Langmuirequation.
Conjugated polymer and their derivatives have shown great promises due to their high absorption coefficients in the visible part of the spectrum, high mobility of charge carriers and good stability. Recently, composites of conjugated polymers with inorganic semiconductor are an emerging area of research for photoelectric conversion because they may be able to combine the unique properties of the two materials. In this article, a series of highly reactive nano-composites （Fe2O3/PFD,α-Fe2O3/PF,α-Fe2O3/PFA） were successfully prepared via a two-step method of polymerization and heat conversion and the materials were characterized by varies techniques in regard to their size, structure and UV-Vis absorption property. And their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of dye methylene blue （MB） solution as model reaction under the natural light and room temperature.This thesis mainly consists of following three major aspects.1 . A series of nanocomposites（Fe2O3/PFD,α-Fe2O3/PF,α-Fe2O3/PFA） were successfully prepared via a two-step method of polymerization and heat conversion. The samples were characterized through TG-DTA, TEM, XRD, XPS, IR and UV-Vis techniques. The results showed that the particle size was nanometer. The doping of polymer could extend the photo-response of Fe2O3 to the whole UV-Vis region.2.Structural characterization results revealed that, during the process of a proper heat treatment, the lenth of conjugated chains or the degree of unsaturation of the polymer increase in the complex. The existence of polar group can lead to asymmetric electron structure and enhance the separation efficiency of electron and hole pairs, which is advantageous for improving the activity of complex photocatalyst.3.These materials, obtained by treating the precursor at optimum conditions, could be fully decolorized within 25 minutes or shorter time under the natural light and room temperature while the decolorizing efficiency only reach 5.77 % over Fe2O3 nanoparticles under the same conditions. And these nanosized catalysts were stable and easily separated, avoiding second pollution.