Because coated art paper adding a lot of non-fiber material in the manufacture of paper and arising obstacles from the production process in reuse of waste paper, looking for a low cost and effective method of removing Stickies now becomes a hot research. Stickies chemical group of waste coated art paper （WCAP） are separated and identified in steam explosion process. Understanding the main ingredients of Stickies and choosing the appropriate way to remove or reduce the content of Stickies, it is conducive to operate smoothly in the pulp and papermaking process and to improve the quality of the final product. This study focused on the waste coated art paper steam explosion to remove Stickies’s process conditions, the Stickies chemical composition analysis in expansion process, Simultaneously, the advanced analytic technology of SEM, IR spectrum as well as X-ray diffraction spectrum were used to analyze the microscopic mechanism of explosion pulp. The discussed results of the study were as follows:（1） According single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, it proves the optimum conditions of WCAP: expanded pressure of 0.5 MPa, heat preservation time 10 min, liquid ratio 1:5, NaOH charge 2%, Na2SiO3 charge 2%.（2） Compared the removing effect of stickies in explosion with chemical and physical method, explosion method is more conducive to remove the Stickies.（3） FTIR analyzes ethanol and chloroform extraction in explosion pulp, we can see that after Expanded the adhesive material basic structure has not changed, only the Stickies polymer molecular weight increase or decrease.（4） The SEM analysis shows that in the expanded processing WCAP’s fiber had been better dispersion, the fiber were loose soft, slurry into good effect. And the fiber surface adhesion Stickies basic removal, the removal efficiency significantly.（5） IR spectrum shows that in the expanded processing cellulose characteristic absorption peak strength of the relative absorption increased, and some fiber absorption peak intensity change, the main chemical structure did not change significantly.（6） the X-ray diffraction spectrum analysis shows that the relative crystallinity of fibers increase, there are a crystallization of the district and the change of crystal of the crystallization.
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Comparatively Study on Pulping Properties of Reaction Zone and Opposite Zone in Masson Pine and Poplar
Reaction wood being defects inescapability in the physical machining process produces greater effects on the quality of product,from the view of pulping,so the pulping properties and paper properties of reaction wood,opposite wood and side wood were explored roundly and deeply in this thesis to prove whether they could achieve the request of making paper.Consequently,reasonable and efficient use of the timber could be realized and scientific theoretic basis could be offered.Because Masson pine and Poplar were often used for industrial material,they were regarded as researchful objects,the emphases of study were differences of properties between reaction wood and opposite wood.The results of research were as follows:1.Fiber Morphology and Chemical CompositionAverage fiber length of Masson pine(C,O,S) was respectively 3924μm,4025μm and 4220μm.From the results of fiber length,the pulping properties of compression zone were worse than that of opposite zone and side zone.But from the results of ratio of length to width and runkel ratio,the pulping properties of compression zone were better than that of opposite zone and side zone.Average fiber length of Poplar(T,O,S) was respectively 13211am,1227μm and 1171μm,they were bigger than that of some hardwood or other kinds Poplar.From the results of average fiber length and ratio of length to width,the pulping properties were the best in tension zone,but they were the worst in opposite zone.The content of lignin in compression zone of Masson pine was the highest;the contents of holocellulose and cellulose were the lowest.The content of lignin in tension zone of Poplar was the lowest,but the contents of holocellulose and cellulose were the highest in three zones.From the results of variance analysis and multiple comparisons,the effect of Masson pine(O,S,C) on lignin was more notable,and the difference between compression zone and opposite zone was larger.The effect on cellulose was very significant,and the difference between compression zone and opposite zone was also very significant. However,the effect on holoeellulose was not significant.The effect of Poplar(O,S,T) on lignin,holocellulose and cellulose were all very significant,and the difference between tension zone and opposite zone was also very significant. In conclusion,the three zones of Masson pine and Poplar were all suitable for pulping, and they were all better pulping material from the results of fibre morphology and chemical composition.2.Pulping PerformanceThe technologic conditions of orthogonal design were made out in compression zone and tension zone by groping test on three zones of Masson pine and Poplar.The best feasible conditions of pulping in three zones of Masson pine were made out by the results of orthogonal design of reaction zone.The results were as follows:active alkali,sulfidity and retention time of temperature were 20%,26%and 120minutes,respectively.The best feasible conditions of opposite zone in Poplar were as follows:active alkali, sulfidity and retention time of temperature were 16%,24%and 60minutes,respectively. And the best feasible conditions of tension zone and side zone were as follows:alkali, sulfidity and retention time of temperature were 14%,24%and 30minutes,respectively.Under the best feasible condition of pulping,kappa number and yield were respectively 23.13 and 45.18%in compression zone of Masson pine,which were higher than that of opposite zone and side zone.Kappa number and yield were respectively 9.70 and 61.03%in tension zone of Poplar,so kappa number was the lowest,however,the yield was the highest than that of opposite zone and side zone.3.Physical Performance of PaperWith the increase of active alkali,physical performances of paper in compression zone and side zone became worse.Under the condition of active alkali of 20%,several performances of paper in compression zone of Masson pine were all the worst in three zones.However,those of side zone were all the best.Under the condition of active alkali of 14%,index of tensile strength,index of bursting strength and index of synthetic strength in tension zone of Poplar were the smallest,only tear index was the biggest in three zones.In conclusion,compression zone and tension zone still presented definite defects in pulping;however,paper performances of opposite zone and side zone were better than reaction zone,so opposite zone and side zone could not only be made good use of pulping and making paper but also were regarded as better materials.
Comparatively Study on Properties of Pulping and Paper of Juvenile and Mature Wood of Populus Simonni×P.nigra
Rescently,the worst default of artificial forestry is that proportion of juvenile wood is higher than mature wood,and the period of felling between one time and next time on one tree is very short,so there are a lot of difference on the physical performance and chemical composition between juvenile wood and mature wood,and our aim of studying is how it will infect to properties of pulping and the physical performance of paper.Populus simonni×P.nigra was studied in this experiment,we studied the fiber performance and chemical composition,and looked for the best way of pulping of juvenile and mature wood by L9（34） orthogonality experiments,studied Kappa No.,yield,the properties of striking pulp,mixed the juvenile wood and mature wood with different proportion,and studied their properties of striking pulp with different round,and made paper from these pulp to measure out the physical performance of these paper.Finally,the basic status will be applied to factories in practice.The experiment showed:1.The content of benzene alcohol extractive of juvenile and mature wood respecfly is 2.05%and 1.43%,The content of lignin in juvenile wood and mature wood respectly is 20.82%and 19.57.the content of holocellulose is 50.52%and 47.65%,and the content of cellulose is 77.26%and 79.44%,on the level of 5%,the benzne alcohol extractive have notable difference,on the level of 10%,the contents of cellulose have notable difference, but lignin and holocellulose do not have notable difference.2.The fibre rate of length to width of Juvenile wood is 47.02,rankel ration is 0.39, The fibre rate of length to width of mature wood is 48.55,rankel ration is 0.45.3.With 5 different ways（NaOH+AQ,NaOH,KP,KP+S,KP+AQ） to make pulp,and study the pulp,the result showed that Kappa No.respectly is that 14.62,17.60,14.60, 14.35,14.19,and the yield is that 50.30%,48.00%,50.00%,50.10%,51.34%,so the best way is（KP+AQ）.4.With L9（34） orthogonality experiments,range analysis and variance analysis,found that best progress is 16%use alkali amounts,60 min soaking,24%vulcanization degree, the Kappa No.and yield of juvenile wood respectly is 14.19 and 52.16%,and the mature wood respectly is 15.46 and 51.34%.5.The pulping fiber length of juvenile wood is shorter than that of juvenile,decreased about 2.53%,the ration of length and wideth decreased about 0.11.The pulping fiber length of mature wood is shorter,decreased about 5.95%,the ratio of length and wideth decreased about 1.53.6.Under the best technological conditions,studied the properties of pulping if different proportions of juvenile and mature wood mixture（1:2,1:3,1:4,1:5）,found that with the proportion of mature wood increased,the Kappa No.will increase regularly too,but the yield decreased.7.The juvenile and mature wood was mixed with different rate to make pulp and strike pulp,under different rotation,the strike degree will ascend with the round increased, and will descend with the proportion of mature wood increased.8.The same proportion of juvenile wood and mature wood,the tearing index decrease with round ascending,when the same round,the index of bursting strength,tensile strength and elongation rate increased with the proportion of mature wood ascending.
Great attention has been played on sulfur pollution after a series of ecological damage and economic losses caused by environmental acidification. The chemical composition of precipitation was analyzed on the basis of the result of precipitation collected at two sites in Nanchang during the period from 2007 to 2008, and discussed the chemical feature and pollutant sources. The tow sites located at Qianhu campus and the North campus of Nanchang University, standing for the urban and suburban. To discussed the pollutant characteristics and sources of chemical composition and differences of the toxic trace metal in precipitation at two sites, this study take the method of discounting the effect of sea salt and crust to work out the proportion of anthropogenic activity , combined with mathematical statistics such like the relevance analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Further more, for the stable sulfur isotopic composition can effectively judge the difference sources of sulfur in the atmospHeric pollution by its “fingerprint” of the characteristics, theδ34S value was taken to analysis the sulfur source of precipitation in Nanchang. Results show that:（1） The weighted rainfall pH value of precipitation in Nanchang less than 5.00, and every precipitation is acid rain, it is lower than previous studies. The volume weighted mean pH value of Qianhu and the north campus are 3.96 and 4.16, respectively. The pH of precipitation at the north campus is higher than it at Qianhu campus while the conductivity is larger, for there are more strong acid buffered by alkaline substances in the atmospHeric environment of the urban area than at suburban. Precipitation is a kind of sulfuric acid and nitric acid mixed acid rain with the value of SO42-/NO3- ranging from 0.5 to 3.0∑+/∑- of Qianhu and the north campus are 1.195 and 1.154, shows that it is essential balance between the cation and anion. The pH, conductivity and ions showed a significant seasonal variation. Anthropogenic activity had the greatest impact on the precipitation, Qianhu site was mostly influenced by anthropogenic activity and crust while the north site was mostly influenced by anthropogenic activity and sea salt. A significant correlation between ions of land-based sources, sea salt ions and NO3- with SO42-. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis has the same result, shows that the major sources of precipitation are the crust and human activities in Qianhu campus, and human activities and sea salt in the North campus.（2） The concentrations of toxic trace metal elements are much high than other place while close with the concentrations in Guiyang, and show a seasonal fluctuation of high in summer and low in winter. To Cu, Hg and Pb, precipitation is a pollution factor of surface water. There are no correlations between metal elements and pH in the precipitation, but when the pH is less than 4.00, metal concentration increases rapidly. Qianhu site is more influenced by crust and less by sea salt than the north campus. The effect of three sources to the metal concentration is: human＞crust＞sea salt, the impact of human activities to the two campuses is 95.43% and 96.60%, respectively. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn show a good correlation for come from the same sources. The results of principal component analysis are consisted with the cluster analysis. The pollution of trace toxic metals in rainwater is mainly released from human activities, like large smelting, oil-fire furnaces, the wearing tire and automobile exhaust, and so on.（3） Theδ34S in precipitation of Qianhu campus and the North campus in spring and summer precipitation ranged from -3.55 to +3.91‰and from -3.88 to +7.24‰, respectively, which were both in the scope ofδ34S value in precipitation all over the world. There were several sources of sulfur in urban areas, compare with the suburbs areas. It was significantly that the SO42- concentration andδ34S at two sites smaller than the Qianhu and Qingshan Lake, which indicated that the precipitation was not the main source of sulfate in surface water. During the rainy season, the sea salt aerosol was the major source of precipitation with a greaterδ34S value in the rainstorm, while the local land-based sources （anthropogenic and biological sulfur） were the major source of precipitation with a lowerδ34S value. The biological sulfur was the major factor in rainwater of suburban in the spring and summer, and both the anthropogenic and biological sulfur of urban, whereas the sea salt sulfur had less effect to suburban and urban.
Characteristics Analysis of Chemical Composition of Wet Deposition during Sixteen Years in Shanghai City and Its Causes Research
This topic analyzes statistic results of Shanghai wet deposition monitoring data during sixteen years（1992-2007）.It analyzes the variations of chemical composition of wet deposition during these years. Based on an abundance of wet deposition monitoring data of latter years, the sources of the ions are analyzed with a factor analysis method.A stepwise linear multi-variation regression model is established to predict the concentration of hydrogen ion.Based on the result of the model, combining the variations of chemical composition of wet deposition with the ions’ predecessors’ concentration,the causes of chemical characteristics variation and pH value decreasing of wet deposition are explained.Furthermore,a method for filtering abnormal wet deposition monitoring data is present. Main conclusions are drawn from analyzing wet deposition monitoring data during sixteen years:pH value,So42-,Ca2+,F- and EC value declined;No3-,Cl-,Na+,Mg2+,K+ varied slightly;acidification frequency increased.During the year 2003 to 2004,all the ions declined in different extents;acidification frequency increased dramatically after year 2003;acidification frequency has a significant linear relationship with So2,dust and some of the ions in wet deposition.Combining with the results of stepwise linear multi-variation regression model of H+ with the variations of chemical composition of wet deposition,it sums up that the declining of So42-/No3-,Ca2+/NH4+ and(Ca2+ +NH4+ )/(So42- +No3 -) results in the decreasing of pH value and the increasing of acidification frequency together.Moreover,according to the relationships among the wet deposition monitoring indexes,based on the monitoring data of 682 wet deposition samples,scatter-plot graphs are made.With the principal that keeping the plot in the graphs’ 90%predicted interval while ticking the others out as abnormal data,the method for ticking out abnormal monitoring data is put forward,and is testified by the monitoring data of first six months in year 2008.
This research is a part of project subsidized by National 863 Project”Research on bio-oil production from biomass fast pyrolysis based on improving bio-oil qualities”(2008AA05Z404). Self-made fluidized-bed reactor was used to obtain bio-oil, and research of properties of bio-oil, chemical composition, aging properties as well as emulsification with diesel was conducted in this paper.This paper has concluded detailed the current status of biomass pyrolysis for liquid product in China and overseas, especially about analysis of bio-oil properties. From the point of view of continual development, the technology of biomass pyrolysis for producing bio-oil has a good prospect.The fluidized-bed reactor designed by our research center was mainly consisted of three parts, that is, the feeding system, the pyrolysis reactor and the collecting system for products. With biomass fed at the rate of 1～2 kg/h, and the vapor residence time at 0.8～1.2 s, three kinds of biomass materials were selected, that is, poplar sawdust, sweet sorghum stalk and dusk residues, for bio-oil production.Properties of three different bio-oils, including water content, heating value, kinetic viscosity, density, ash content, CCR and pH vale were analyzed. Results showed that with relatively low water content and high heat value of bio-oil, its density, ash content and CCR were higher than ordinary fuels. Simultaneously, the kinetic viscosity of bio-oil decreased significantly with the temperature increasing, proving its prominent viscosity-temperature characteristic. In addition, when compared with other bio-oils, bio-oil from poplar sawdust was better, due to its low water content (25.01%) and high heating value (20.6MJ/kg).Moreover, both of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) analysis and 1HNMR were used to detect chemical composition of bio-oil. According to chemical composition analysis, bio-oil is a highly complex mixture of organic compounds, and bio-oil from husk residues and sweet sorghum stalk were similar to each other. From 1HNMR spectrum, different types of hydrogen can be observed, with the larges account of Phenolic(OH) and olefinic proten more than 50%.For the purpose of analyzing its aging process, changes of properties of bio-oil during three months were measured. Results showed that, water content increased only 0.82%, while kinetic viscosity went up as much as 1.18mm2/s.For further enlarge application of bio-oil, different emulsification conditions were tried to get better emulsification results. When surface active agents account for about 5%, stable time was relatively longer than other conditions, though improvements on emulsification were required.In conclusion, these foundation researches of biomass fast pyrolysis for producing liquid fuel is significant for optimizing experiment parameter, forecasting the result of experiment and magnifying equipment etc. Besides, research of properties of bio-oil, its aging process and emulsification with diesel provides reliable date for deep study of bio-oil.
Study on the Extraction, Purification and Hypolipidemia Activities of Polysaccharides from Acaudina Molpadioide
Acaudina Molpadioide is a kind of sea cucumber, which belongs to Molpadiidae. It is rich in resources and widely spread over Chinese coastal zones. Polysaccharides was an important composition in the body wall of sea cucumber, had multiplicate physiologicial functions such as anti-hemagglutination,hypolipidemia,anti-tumour, antitumour,imm- une enhance mentand so on.At present, the study of Acaudina Molpadioides polysaccharides mainly focused on the varieties which have higher economic value, such as Stichopus japonicus and Thelenota ananas. However, the research about the polysaccharides from Acaudina Molpadioides that lower economic value have not been reported at home.The study use Acaudina Molpadioides which was from Fujian coastal zones as raw material,analyzing comprehensively the composition of the body wall of Acaudina Molpadioides,having done systemic research on the extraction,isolation and purification of Acaudina Molpadioides polysaccharides,then analyzing and determining its chemical compositions. On the basis of the fundamental research on Acaudina Molpadioides polysaccharides, the experiment method of the preventive hyperlipemia animal model were determined to investigate the hypolipidemia activity of Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide,evaluating the activated function on hypolipidemia.The main contents in the paper were concluded as follows:1. The nutritional contents of Acaudina molpadioides were analysised.The contents of moisture,protein,crude fats,polysaccharides and ashes in the body of Acaudina molpadioides were determined,the content of moisture was 87.42%,the contents of other compositions that measured by dry weight were 74.67%,3.29%,4.58 % and 3.03% respectively. The result showed that Acaudina molpadioides was a kide of high-protein and low-fats sea food such as other sea cucumbers.The composition of amina acid and fatty acids were analyzed,the result showed that the composing of amino acid was complete, the human essential amino acids was up to 18.54%;the unsaturated fatty acid was 54.80% accounted for total fats, especially theω-6 series of was up to 13.10%.Besides,the body wall of Acaudina molpadioides contained rich minerals such as kalium, calcium, natrium,magnesium, iron,manganes and zinc,parti- cularly the contents of calcium and Iron were higher than others.2. The method of alkaline extraction combined with papain enzymolysis was applied to extract Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide, after screening many conditions of extracting.The extraction process of Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide were optimized through the orthogonal experimental design.The results showed that the extraction percentage of crude polysaccharide increased greatly when the reagent was hydrolyzed by papain after adding 4% alkaline solution into the mixture of Acaudina molpadioides and impregnant that was twice weight of materials to react at 6℃for 24 h. On the basis of L9(34)orthogonal test, the optimum hydrolytic conditions of papain were confirmed as follows: temperature 55℃, hydrolysis for 5 h, enzyme addition 4.8×104U/g, pH 6.5. Under this condition, the extraction percentage of crude polysaccharide was up to 12.08%.3. In the isolation and purification experiments of the crude polysaccharide ,the both methods of TCA and the potassium acetate precipitation were used to deproteinization on Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide.By comparing the effects,it was found that the ratio of deproteinization method reached to 50.86% and the obtained ratio of polysaccharide was 44.94%% by TCA, better than the method of potassium acetate precipitation, with the ratio of deproteinzation 29.83% and the obtained ratio of polysaccharide 21.54%,meanwhile,the purity of polysaccharide were improved by TCA .The Sephadex G-100 chromatography was used to purify the polysaccharide.A main component was obtained which maybe a homogeneous glycoprotein component.According to the characteristic of chemical composition in sea cucumber,the chemical composition of the purified Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide such as glucuronic acid,aminogalactose, L-fucose and slufate were determined,and their contents were 12.00%,17.02%,24.57% and 21.63% respectively.4. The experiment method of the preventive hyperlipemia animal model were applied to investigate the hypolipidemia activity of Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide.The results were follows:the Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide had no obvious effect on mice weight;the Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide can remarkably inhibit the rising of blood lipid,effectively decrease TC,TG and AI in the serum(p<0.05 or P<0.01);comparing with the high lipidic group, the middle-dose group can obviously increase HDL-C and decrease LDL-C (P<0.01) in the serum;to a certain degree, the low-dose group and the high–dose group had effect on increasing HDL-C and decreasing LDL-C in the serum.The results showed that the Acaudina molpadioides polysaccharide can obviously inhibit the rising of blood lipid,effectively prevent the hyperlipemia and arterisclerosis damages.
Chemical and Microbiological Compositions and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Fermented Milk of Tibet in China
The chemical and microbiological compositions of forty-four traditional fermented milk samples were analyzed in this study. These samples were collected from different individual households in different region of Tibet. One hundred and seventy-one strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from these samples. Moreover, traditional physiological and biochemical characteristically methods and 16S rDNA analysis were used to identify the species of these bacteria. This research provided the basic data for systematically understanding of the characteristics of traditional fermented milk in Tibet. For further exploitation and utilization of lactic acid bacteria in industrial development, this study can also give much useful information.The average content values of various indexes tested in these fourty-four samples were described as follows. Fat, protein, lactose, ash, calcium and phosphorus were 4.14±1.02 g/100mL, 4.59±2.67g/100mL, 2.64±1.21 g/100mL, 0.75±0.11g/100mL, 102.83±17.88mg/100mL and 94.29±18.31mg/100mL, respectively. Vitamin B1, B2, B6, C and free amino nitrogen were 0.196±0.155μg/g,1.546±0.474μg/g, 0.059±0.041μg/g, 1.504±0.924mg/100g and 4.413±1.984 mmol/L, respectively. The average pH values was 4.27±0.44, acidity aligned at 104.65±44.35°T, lactic acid leveled at 0.661±0.288 g/L, acetic acid content was 0.072±0.051g/L, citric acid content was 0.052±0.024g/L, succinic acid content as 0.014±0.007g/L and ethanol content was 3.68±0.75g/L. For most of the samples, the counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were 7.08～9.71and 5.01~6.98log cfu/g, respectively. Generally, in these samples, the counts of the lactic acid bacteria were higher than those of the yeasts by one or two logarithm.Among the one hundred and seventy-one strains, rod bacteria ratio71.3% was higher than that of cocci 28.7%. Thus, rod bacteria were considered as a major population in these samples. In this study, Lactobacillus fermentum 29.9% and Lactobacillus casei 26.9% were the most predominant species among all the isolates. Moreover, the left isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococccus lactis subsp lactis, Lactococccus lactis subsp cremoris, Enterococcus duarus, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroicles subsp mesenteroides and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides.
Cloud is a complex system with its chemical composition influenced by the interaction between gas, particle pollutants and the liquid water in troposphere. Acidification of cloud induces acid rain. Therefore, the investigation of cloud pollution process and mechanism can give us an overview of the transformation of acidic pollutant into cloud water in different weather and different oxidant and aerosol pollutant background. The research on cloud chemistry is highly significant to the investigation on acid rain formation and the acidic pollutant transformation in China.A total of 118 cloud/fog samples and 11 precipitation samples were collected during Mar. 2007- Nov. 2008 at the summit of Mt. Taishan in order to examine the impact of regional sources of pollution on cloud and fog water chemistry in the highly polluted North China Plain. The monitoring campaign was divisible into 3 periods in spring, summer and autumn-winter, respectively. All samples were analyzed for electric conductivity （EC）, pH, F-, Cl-,NO3-, SO42-, NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and organic acids. This paper mainly discussed the cloud and precipitation chemical composition, the influence factors on cloud chemistry and the interaction between aerosols and cloud droplets.The cloud/fog water pH ranged from 2.56 to 7.64 and the volume weighted mean （VWM） pH was 3.87. Some of the cloud water was severe acidified. More than 45% of the cloud samples can be identified as strongly acidified cloud. Cloud water collected in spring has polarized pH values （from 2.56 to 7.64） and the summer cloud water showed narrow pH range. There were only 3 cloud/fog events in autumn-winter campaign and all the samples in this campaign were strongly acidic cloud. The cloud and rain water on Mt. Taishan has a relatively high ion concentration compared with the monitoring results on some other rural high elevation sites on global. The cloud water ion concentration was 4.4 times of that in rain. The monitoring results illuminated that there are abundant acidic pollutants in the air on Huabei Plain and the precipitation was highly influenced by anthropogenic sources despite the monitoring site was on a high elevation above the boundary layer.The inorganic cloud/fog components are mainly from an anthropogenic source and are dominated by SO42- (1062μeqL-1), NO3- (405μeqL-1), NH4+ (1235μeqL-1) and Ca2+ (260μeqL-1), accounting for about 90% of the total ion concentration. Comparing with cloud water, rain has a higher sea source salt contribution, and cloud water tended to be influenced more by regional and anthropogenic sources. Cloud water in spring and autumn-winter showed similar ion proportion. The summer cloud has a ion proportion close to rain water. Ammonia played the major basic neutralizing role in cloud and rain water and Calcium can provide more basic input in spring because of the highly frequent sandstorms. About 99.5% of the sulfate in cloud water was nss-sulfate indicating a regional source. Sulfate to nitrate ratio of cloud water were 1.73, 4.40 and 1.79 for the three campaigns respectively, lower than the national average sulfate to nitrate ratio of rain water of 6.4, suggesting that the increase emission of NOx from vehicles in recent years also contributed to the acidification of cloud water. Organic acids in cloud water were obviously higher than rain. Formic acid was the most abundant organic aid in cloud water, and the most abundant organic acid in rain was acetate acid. Organic acid can contributed for 1.21%, 1.18%, 1.77% and 1.14% respectively for the three campaigns’ cloud water and for all the monitored rain water.Cloud can scavenge the aerosols obviously. The calculated cloud droplets scavenging ratio of coarse particles （55.7%） was a little higher than that of the fine particles which was 52.0%. Higher scavenging ratios were observed in longer-lasting cloud or fog events. Nitrate （74.8%）, potassium （69.7%） and ammonium （61.2%） tend to be more easily scavenged than calcium （40.2%） and sodium （32.1%） on PM2.5 which was inferred as the ion solubility difference for the ions. Sodium, ammonium and potassium tend to be enriched on fine particles while calcium and magnesium were more abundant on coarse particles. The simulation results showed that the close system was more similar with practical air condition, and H2O2 was the predominating S （Ⅳ） oxidant. In the later stage of the simulation, O3 can react with more S （Ⅳ） than H2O2. After 4 hours simulating reaction under the proposed air condition, the percentage of the oxidizing amount of H2O2, O3, and HCHO was 64.4%, 19.8%, and 15.8%, respectively.
Sea cucumber was classified as one of the “seafood Bazhen” for its high nutritional value and the value of pharmacy.The object of this thesis is to study the rheological properties of saline sea cucumber.The main results are as follows:1) Study on the rheological properties of several sea cucumber.Compared with the fresh sea cucumber,the organizational structure and the apparent color of the watered samples was lighter than those in the fresh sea cucumber.During the process of water risen,the organizational structure of sea cucumber on optical microscope also showed obvious difference in different kinds of sea cucumber.The color of Plum Participation is deeper than other kind of sea cucumber.During the process of water risen,the dyied samples the general trend is that the width of collagen fibers and the fiber in the gap become larger.Compared with the fresh sea cucumber,the parameters of rheological characteristics（E0,τ1,η1,breaking strength） show a significant change.The elastic modulus E0,viscous modulusη1 and stress relaxation timeτ1 increased,while the breaking strength decreased significantly.Compared with the fresh sea cucumber,the watered samples have the characteristics of flexibility,small hardness and good adhesion.2) The optimization of the technology process in saline sampleCompared with the fresh samples,the structure and rheology characteristics of the heated ones showed significant changes.These changes were mainly because of the thermal denaturation of protein.Under different heating time,the muscle fibers cohesion further with the heating time became longer,and the fiber gap became larger, viscous modulusη1,relaxation timeτ1 and breaking strength showed a increasing trend while elastic modulus E1 showed a clear downward trend.Under different salting time,the muscle fibers cohesion further with the heating time became longer, and the fiber gap became larger,viscous modulusη1,relaxation timeτ1 and breaking strength showed a increasing trend while elastic modulus E0 showed a clear downward trend.Compared with other processing conditions,the samples heating for 5min and salting for 2 days had a relatively larger size,better able to maintain its effective nutrients, and have great elasticity,small hardness,soft and nice features,so it is a better condition.Rheological parameters（E0,τ1,η1,breaking strength）,the heating time,the salting time and structural changes in muscle organization shows good correlation.3) The analysis of the chemical composition of polysaccharides in saline samplesThe polysaccharide of saline samples is composed by seven kinds of monosaccharide, including four neutral monosaccharides,mannose;galactose,fucose and glucuronic, two amino sugars,glucosamine and galactosamine,as well as a glucuronic acid. Compared with the fresh sea cucumber,the content of polysaccharide in saline ones decreased,mainly because of the loss of water and soluble substances during the heating process.There was no significant difference on the chemical composition between salinity and fresh sea cucumber.The monosaccharide composition did not change significantly either.The main chain of Stichopus polysaccharide was composed by the amino sugar and uronic acid alternating with a similar structure derived chondroitin sulfate,so the amino sugar and uronic acid molecular ratio near 1:1.Compared with traditional chemical methods,PMP pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography on the analysis of the composition of monosaccharide is facilitate easy,high sensitivity and good repeatability.4) standards of saponins in sea cucumberProvides the high-performance liquid chromatography method to determine the content of saponins in sea cucumber and the capsules,serous and other deep-processed things that made from raw materials.It is used to the determination of saponins in sea cucumber and the capsules,serous and other deep-processed things that made from raw materials.