In this study, theand protein in zizyphus jujube mill was used as the object, In the purification process, the was study on extracting discolor dialysis and de-protein for further study, the dissoluble protein was extracted dialysis electrophoresis high Performance Liquid Chromatograph, in order to offer theoretical foundation for produce and relevant research. The result is as follows:1.The optimal conditions for hot water was 1:16 of the ratio of sample to water,240 mins of at 100℃and one time, The rate was 5.94%;The optimal conditions for enzyme was pH4.5,60 mins of extraction at 60℃and 0.03% concentration of enzyme, The rate was 7.82%;The optimal conditions for alkali extraction was Na2CO3,1:20 of the ratio of sample to water,180 mins of extraction at 80℃, The rate was 6.82%.2.Choosing the optimal precipitator of methanol ethanol acetone, methanol would be the optimal precipitator, acetone is noxious but the ethanol is the cheapest, so we choose the ethanol; Sorite extraction method extrats fattiness; The separation of smaller molecules by 3000 Dalton dialysis membrane.3. De-color by activated carbon and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2). activated carbon is the best no side-effect and adsorbs some polysaccharide, polysaccharide would be oxidated by high consistence hydrogen peroxide. Sevag method was the optimal de-protein process.To sum up, the polysaccharide and the dissoluble protein was extracted and pured, and determined the molecular weight of the dissoluble protein.
Post about "extraction"
（PG） is a widely used antibiotic and also serves as an important raw material for semisynthetic penicillins. During traditional physical solvent of PG from filtered broth , the lost of PG are considerable at pH values of 1.8-2.2. A low temperature of 0 to 5℃must be applied and expensive centrifugal extractors are necessary for the phase separation in . Liquid membranes （LM） technical is a alternative which can combine extraction and back-extraction processes in one step. With the the advantages of high mass transfer efficiency and good selectivity, liquid membrane has become one of the most advantageous techniques in the purification and separation biochemical products such as penicillin G.In this work, Bulk liquid membrane （BLM） and a new liquid membrane, named hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane （ ） were applied to study the separation of penicillin G. The following achivedment were gotten in this work:A method for penicillin G determination in its solvent extraction process was established. 0.2 mol·L-1 KH2PO4 （pH=3.5）–methanol （38:62） was chose as the mobile phase. The method is rapid, accurate and reliable and the influence of buffer and organic solvents can be omitted. Several kinds of extractants were used to study the extraction behavior with different pH, temperature, carrier content, diluent. The patition coefficients of physical extraction processes was higher but considerable PG were lost. Reactive extraction process can be conducted under mild pH （5-7） and room temperature.Bulk liquid membrane experiment was performed to testify the feasibility and advantages of liquid membrane in penicillin G separation. The effects of operation mode, flow rate, carrier concentration, pH on the mass transfer performance of were determined. The pH difference between the feed and strip is the main driving force during the mass transfer process of penicillin G.HFRLM has both good extraction and concentration efficiencies for penicillin G. The extraction in the feed reached 99.2% and the recovery in the strip was 92.2% in the circulated experiments with a initial concentration of 50000 u. During the simulated process with HFRLM to separate high concentration （100000 u） feed, the recovery of penicillin G can reach above 88% after 8 stages HFRLM operation.
Pectin is the most important soluble dietary fiber in sunflower head, the production of pectin in China is still lagging, and the technology ofwhich costs lower and products higher is not perfects. In order to improve the yield and quality of pectin, and actualize the reuse of depectin pomace, we compared the effects of tradition acid and microwave-assisted method on pectin yield and quality, adopts technical of active carbon and resin the solution of pectin, Finally, gained the pectin with alcohol diposition. The physical-chemical properties of the were also investigated. The result shows:(1) The materias were ground by a mill to pass a 60-mesh size screen、destroying enzyme inboiling water about 3min and washed with water at 75℃and stirred slowly for 15 min at a solid: Liquid ratio of 1:20 ahead of pectin extraction, will gain a high pectin yield, the pectin has little impurity and has good colour and luster.(2) The tests were optimized through good single factor selecting and Response Surface Methodology (Central Composite Rotatable Design). The predicted values were obtained by equation very well.The conventional extraction optimal conditions is temperature 89℃, action time 100 min, pH 3.4 and rate of solid/liquid 1:25; and the MAE optimal conditions is microwave power 450 W, action time 6.5 min, pH 3.4 and rate of solid/liquid 1:20, were determined by response surface methodology (RSM). Application of MAE in the extraction from dried sunflower heads dramatically reduced extraction time compared with conventional extraction.(3) Through single factor analysis method contrast the ation effect of carbon and resin. shows that the effect of decoloration with resin is better than active carbon, and the method of decoloration with resin is suitable for industrial production. We can get the conclusion by good single factor selecting experiment: pH is 4, temperature at normal, velocity is 3.6 BV/h. This method can take off 84.3% of the pigment.(4) The influence of alcohol concentrations, concentration ratio, washing times on the efficiency of inspissation were studied in good single factor selecting and orthogonal experiment design. Pectin purity and gain ratio were used as index of the precipitated process. The results showed that concentrate multiple 4, alcohol concentration 70%; pH is 1.5, the optimal purity of pectin 81.65%.(5) Degree of esterification, moisture, ash, pH, galacturonic acid content were determined by GB standard, and all the parameters of was found to be in accord with the specification of GB. The solubility, viscosity, hot-stability and gel properties were compared sunflower head pectin with low methoxyl pectin.
Persimmion belonging to Ebenaceae DiospyrosL is Deciduous tree.distributes in torrid and temperate zone. is abundant in flavone,tannis and Carotene etc which are bioactive components,so it is worthy of developing. This paper mainly conducted the ,purification and deodorant effect of s from .The results were showed that:The experiment used the traditional solvent .Based on single factor tests,thogonal test was done.The optimum extraction conditions were that the concentration of acet was 50%,extraction temperature is 55℃,the extraction time was 105min and the ratio of the to solvent was 1:16.Under the optimal conditions the extraction yield could reach 71.16%.Through the absorption of static and dynamic curve of static studying in the six kinds of macroporous resin.Resoult showed that HP-20 resin had excellent absorption and desorption properties.The dynamic absorption conditions were flow speed 2BV/h,column density 2.91mg/mL and pH4.8. Through the research on gradient elution,it showed that:40%ethanol eluted the purity which could reach 32.04%.Through the bacterial experiments,three samples had effects of restraining bacterium.The sample B had better effect than the other two samples.The elimination effect enhanced with the concentration of sample increasing.The minimum inhibition concentration(MIC)of sample B on Escherichia coli,Staphy lococus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were listed as follows:250mg/mL,125mg/mL,250mg/mL.The minimum sterilization quality fractions(MBC)were:500mg/mL,250mg/mL,500mg/mL.Combining apparatus with sensory analysis Method.The results showed that:the extract of Polyphenol had effect on ammonia,trimethlamin,sulfureted hydrogen,formaldehyde and indole.The sample B had the best effect on trimethlamin and the worst effect on formaldehyde.This might relate Polyphenol purity,the structure and character of the smelt substance.Apparatus and sensory analysis methods could show the effect of exactly.Through the further purification by Sephdaex LH-20,the Polyphenol purity of sample B-2 was 53.64%.The deodorant rate of it on trimethlamine was 62.37%(2mg/mL).Samples were detected by UV spectrum.After compared to the characterristic absorption of ,the sample was supposed to contain the polyphenol.By using the High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),we selected three kinds of phenolics standards to small molecular phenolics in camelliia chryscath.The result showed that sample B-2 might containe gallic acid,the caffeine and the table caffeine.
The Study on Extraction of Rosmarinic Acid from Rosemary and Their Antioxidant Ability of the Rosemary Antioxidant
（Rosmarinus officinalis L.）, an evergreen shrub, which is a natural spiceberry of the family Labiatae, contained many kinds of bio-active substances. One of these substances was , which had very strong antioxidant ability. In this paper, the technics of and purification of （RosA） from rosemary and the antioxidant ability of the extract were studied.Firstly, the of from rosemary with microwave and ultrasonic wave was studied. The results showed that the optimal extracting technological conditions were as follows: 20 mesh（comminuted size, mesh）, 15% （ethanol concentration, v/v）, ratio of liquid to material （5:1）, 10 min（the time of ultrasonic cells broken）, 540w （the power of microwave）,4 times （extracting times） and 6 min each time. Under these conditions, the extracting rate of rosmarinic acid could reach 94.54%. showed that this method had the advantages of short extracting time, high yield and low-cost for of rosmarinic acid.Secondly, the optimal conditions of purification were studied experimentally. The extraction liquid was clarified by ceramic micro-filter and used X-5 macroporous absorption resin to concentrate rosmarinic acid. The optimal adsorption conditions were determined: When the adsorption speed was 4 mL·min-1, the resin could absorb 1500 mL extraction liquid , and 1300mL 75% ethanol was used to desorb.Thirdly, the gained concentration solution was purified by normal butanol, and the best condition of extraction was: When the solid concentration was 14.29%, pH=3, extraction time was 20min, the volume ratio of solution to normal butanol was 1:1.5, the extraction times was 2.Finally, the crystallization method was used to the further purify to gain the pure products. The qualitative analysis by HPLC showed that the content of the final rosmarinic acid products was 96.82%（w/w）.Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of rosemary extract was studied. The rosmarinic acid products had a good antioxidant ability though showed slightly lower reducing power and scavenging ability on superoxide radical(·O-2) than ascorbic acid. And in order to make the best use of rosemary, the lipid-soluble antioxidant was extracted from the material dregs.All in all, the purity of rosmarinic acid products was high. The whole technics were short and easy to undertake in factory which had a good future in industrial application.
Research on Extraction, Physicochemical Property and Antioxidation of Purple Dioscorea Batatas Decne
, an annual or perennial twining liana plant, belongs to dioscorea batatas family. is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. is rich in carbohydrates, and also contains protein, various vitamins, chemicals, indicant, and mucilage which are beneficial to human body. is bright red, and has developed rhizomes in the shape of a sole, thus named. Its colors vary from white to puce （purple）. Purple ones indicate that they contain certain pigments, belonging to anthocyanin. , a kind of flavonoid compound, is an edible natural pigment of water-solubility. At present, few researches have been done on the pigment of Dioscorea batatas Decne. Domestic researches have been limited to the separation and of it. In the paper, the writer has made an initial exploration into the separation and of the pigments in purple Dioscorea batatas Decne, and the stability and the biological activity of extracorporeal anti-oxidation have also been studied in the paper, which has provided a theoretical foundation on which to take advantage of anthocyanin, and develop functionality foods from Dioscorea batatas Decne.Based on Orthogonal experiments, the paper first studies the best technological conditions under which to lixiviate pigments of Dioscorea batatas Decne. The results show that pure anthocyanin can be extracted by filtering steep, adsorbing colophony, decompression and cubage reduction, under the condition that 1.5 percent of citric acid ethanol liquor serves as the best lixiviator, which should be heat up under the constant temperature of 60℃for 60 minutes, and the proportion of general materials should be 1:10.At the same time, the paper also studies the stability of the pigment in purple Dioscorea batatas Decne, showing its stability under the condition of pH<3 high acid liquids, and its unstability under the condition of pH > 5 liquids. It possesses certain heat-resistance, but the temperature should not be over 90℃. It has relatively poor lightfastness. Most metal ions will not have great effects on the stability of the pigment, while Al3+、Fe3+ do have great impacts, among which Al3+、Fe3+ tend to increase the absorbency of the pigment.In the paper, two extracorporeal anti-oxidation models have been adopted to study the extracorporeal anti-oxidation of pigment in purple Dioscorea batatas Decne so that the potential of pigment as a function gene of anti-oxidation can be fully understood. The results indicate that pigment in purple Dioscorea batatas Decne possesses considerably strong ability to eliminate·OH and·O2-, and its ability has so much to do with its thickness.
Citrus fruit is one of the biggest yield of fruit in the world,peel is their maily byproduct andtakes 20～40% output in the total citrus.The research use citrus fruit peel as test material and studied on extration and purification of flavonoids in citrus fruit peels.At the same time,Antioxidation activity was studied. UV spectrophotometer were used to measure the concentration of total flavonoid.The results was reported as following:The article sutdied on different methods:water bath , micro-wave extraction and supersonic extraction. Influencing factor:Ethanol concentration,extracting time, liquid-to-solid ratio, extracting temperature,micrwave power,supersonic power were studied. Through mono-factor anlysis with different extration methods,the results show that supersonic extraction has the optimal rate of extraction. Using central composite rotatable design and second order quadratic equation to determine the optimize process of flavonoids extraction by supersonic.By analyzing the response surface plots and their corresponding contour plots as well as solving the quadratic equation,the optimal processing for supersonic extraction were 62.08% ethanol,62.17min supersonic time,37.59 liquid-solid ratio.The predicted result for the rate of flavonoids extraction was 1.23%. Variance analysis is very significance in the Quadratic equation model.Four macroporous adsorption resin were used to purify flavonoids of citrus . Through static adsorption and desorption experiment,using the rate of absorption and desorption as evaluating indicator,finally got AB-8 was the best in the four different resins and the resin got its adsorption equilibrium in five hours,the optimal dynamic adsorption processing parameter of AB-8 resin were flavonoids solution concentration is 1.22mg/mL,pH is 3.5. The optimal dynamic desorption processing parameter are flow rate is 1BV/h, ethanol concentration is 70%. Purity of total flavonoids was increased from 8.7% to 38.5%. AB-8 resin can be used to purify flavonoids of .The antioxidation activity of citrus peel flavonoids before purifying and after purifying was studied, The results was reported as following:when flavonoids addition was 0.4mg,the effect of scavenging hydroxyl and superoxide anion were vitamin c>citric acid>purified flavonoids>rough flavonoids, the effect of scavenging DPPH was vitamin c>purified flavonoids>citric acid>rough flavonoids. The effect of scavenging the three free radical was intensified while the addition of puried flavonoids increased,(flavonoids addition between 0.3～1.5mg);The different activity was studied in lard oil.The effect of was BHT > rough flavonoids > purified flavonoids>rutin>bland.The effect of antioxident in lard oil was intensified while the addition of puried flavonoids increased.
is the solid waste of boron industry, which not only engrosses a great deal of the soil, but also cause hazard to field, groundwater and Atmospheric Environment. About 40 wt% Magnesium Oxide in the boron slurry, which is discharged freely causes Magnesium resource waste greatly. So looking for suitable method for recycling Magnesium, is not only can gain tremendous economic benefit, but also can improve ecological environment and speed up sustainable development process.At present, the main method for leaching Magnesium from boron slurry is acid leaching. In the course, iron and aluminium impurities dissolve into the leaching liquor, which effects the leaching liquor purity and further use, and should be removed. Traditional method for purification uses Alkali. According to the leaching liquor being acid solution system, The test put forward solid mothod for separating iron and aluminium impuritiesunder under this circumstance. This method has many advantages such as no magnesium loss, renewable recycling use, rapid separation and high efficiency. Subsequently, fine processing of leaching liquor is researched and morphology-homogeneous magnesium hydroxide sulfate whiskers are received, which can be used for Enhancement and flame retardant. The concrete research contents are as follows:1.Study on leaching magnesium from the boron slurry is described. We use hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid as leaching agent to study the soaking rate of Mg from the boron slurry. The results show that sulfuric acid has higher Mg leaching rate and lower cost comparing with hydrochloric acid. The optimum condition of sulfuric acid leaching is concluded as follow: Using 10 g drying boron slurry as our initial state, the dosage of H2SO4 is 7.92 ml which the dilution rate is 1:3（120 % of the theoretical dosage of H2SO4）, reactive time is 80min, reactive temperature is 70℃, the Mg leaching rate receives 94.2%.2.According to the leaching liquor being acid solution system, We use solvent and solid extraction method for purification reseach, the technical parameters and influencing factors of the solvent extraction technique have been studied. At last, we separate iron and aluminium with self-made solid extraction adsorption column, the technical parameters, the stability and regrowth of the extraction adsorption columnand also have been studied. After solid extraction, The isolation rates of iron and aluminium impurities receive 99.7 % and 99.0 % respectivly. Refined magnesium sulfate solution is received and the magnesium from the boron slurry is separated effectively.3.Preparation of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whiskers is researched. Using Sodium Hydroxide as precipitant, fine processing of magnesium salt is researched and sector shape 152 model magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whiskers are received by hydrothermal method. The hydrothermal influence factors such as concentration, filling degree, reaction temperature and time have been discussed. The optimum condition of synthesizing is concluded as follow: the concentration of MgSO4 is 0.5-0.8 mol/L, molar ratio of MgSO4 and Mg（OH）2 is 2:1, filling degree is more than 32 %, stirring rate is 600 r/min and reaction temperature and time are 140℃and 4 h respectively.
In this paper, theprocess, functional property and modification of japonica are studied. The aim is to improve the functional property and exploit a product. provides gist and technological bases for the further development and utilization of rice resources. The main results are as follows:The optimum conditions of Alkali-protease is as follows: temperature 58℃, pH 8.5, the material-liquid ratio 9:1, enzyme/substrate1000 U/g,the time 4h. The ratio of extraction can reach 70.5%, and the purity can reach 66.53%.The rice protein extraction by the physical-Enzymatic, dual enzyme and the two-step method of alkaline–enzyme are studied. The results show that the three methods can increase the extraction rate of rice protein, and the effect of the two-step method of alkaline-enzyme is significant. The optimum extraction conditions of the two-step method of alkaline-enzyme: alkaline extraction, pH11.0, temperature50℃, time 3 h and the material-liquid ratio:8:1; alkali-proteased extraction, temperature: 55℃, pH:8.5, the material-liquid ratio:9:1, enzyme/substrate:750 U/g, the time 2 h. The ratio of extraction can reach 90.21%, and the purity can reach 83.34%.The effect of pH on solubility, emulsifying properties, and foaming properties of two rice protein( alkaline and protease ) are studied.The modification of rice protein by alkaline Nanning alkaline protease is researched. The best modified conditions: enzyme in5000 u/g, pH9.5, temperature 55℃and hydrolysis time 2 h and rice protein has the dissolution rate of 85.45%.The rice protein functional properties of different hydrolysi conditions, are compared. The results show that 8% of the DH for the rice protein has good solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties. With the DH increase, rice protein hydrolysis emulsification and excessive foaming characteristics were decreased in different degrees. And the amino acid compositions have no significant changes. The experimental results show that the relationship between solubility and hydrolysis in different hydrolysis conditions prove when joined with the more protease or reaction time,the distribution in the soluble protein hydrolysis has a higher proportion of the protease.And on the basis of modification by protease, the effect of TGase on rice protein of 16% DH was studied.
This paper focused on studying thefrom radix puerariae and its inhibitory capability against . The active agents were extracted from radix puerariae and the processing conditions were optimized with the orthogonal design test. After the process of separation and purifying, the was obtained, and the inhibitory effect of puerarin on was studied, using enzymological kinetic method.The water and ethanol extracts of radix puerariae, Lonicera japonica Thunb., Artemisia anomala S. Moore and Dispyrosl kaki Lf. were obtained by refluxing with both water and 75%(v/v)ethanol, concentration and drying, respectively. The inhibitory capability of water and 75%(v/v)ethanol extracts against were investigated. The results showed that extract of radix puerariae has the stronger inhibition than others.The optimum reaction conditions of skin-whitening agent’s inhibition on tyrosinase determined by the single factor experiment method were as follows: the pH value of Phosphate Buffer Solution(PBS) was 6.85, the volume of L-Tyrosine was 1.0mL, the volume of tyrosinase was 0.4mL,time in water bath before tyrosinase added was 10 minutes and reacting time was 5 minutes.The processing conditions of ethanol extract of radix puerariae were optimized with the orthogonal design test. The optimum extracting condition was obtained as the concentration of ethanol was 75%; time for refluxing was 4h, the ratio of material and solvent was l:8 and repeat the process for 2 times. The amount of flavonoid from extract of radix puerariae was investigated, results showed that the largest amount of flavonoid was13.74%.The ethanol extract was further separated with solvents of different polar such as petroleum ether, trichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butylalcohol and their inhibitory capability against tyrosinase were compared. has been found that the inhibitory capability of ethyl acetate-extracted fraction against tyrosinase was the strongest. The extract of ethyl acetate was purified by silica gel column chromatography and tracked by TLC. 10 eluants were obtained and the inhibitory capability of each eluant against tyrosinase was investigated. The results showed that the inhibition of B was 65.7% and the inhibition of D was 79.2%. B and D was further purified by silica gel column chromatography and tracked by TLC. has been found that the inhibition of B3 obtained from B was 92.3%, and the inhibition of D4 obtained from D was 98.5%.To identify the skin-whitening agent from radix puerariae, HPLC, UV and LCMS were used. has been confirmed that daidzein and puerarin were the two main skin-whitening agents obtained from radix puerariae.The mechanism of puerarin’s inhibition on tyrosinase was studied, using enzymological kinetic method. The results showed that puerarin was a noncompetitive inhibitor proved by its Lineweaver-Burk plots.Puerarin was applied in cosmetic. The results confirmed that puerarin has skin-lightening effect after 3 months of trial by 15 people.The antimicrobial effect of radix puerariae extract and puerarin were studied. Results showed that radix puerariae extract has better antimicrobial effect than puerarin.