In this paper,was reviewed that development tendency of anti-crease s on natural fabrics at home and abroad. Preparation, finishing condition and effect of environmental fabric of silk fibroin on natural fibers are studied emphatically.The silk fibroin can be swelled firstly by CaCl2 , then decomposed by acid or enzyme. The lower molecular weight of silk fibroin after being hydrolyzed can be used with soluble cross – linked agent PU to cotton fabrics and with organic silicon to silk fabrics in order to increase anti-crease property.Comparing the three methods of preparing silk fibroin , we concluded that the method with acid is the best. Cotton and silk treated with this kind of finishing agent were analyzed .The results showed.that the treated fabrics with this new agent had better crease resistance than that of the fabrics treated with conventional agents, in addition, showed better strength, softness moisture absorption and so on.Fibroin finishing agent is a kind of finishing agent without pollution and can be decomposed by microorganism. The assistant agents used in this finishing process can also be decomposed by microorganism in some degree. we can conclude that the Fibroin finishing agent is the most competitive agent in the 21 century.
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Several industrial wastewater streams may containsuch as Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, etc. including the waste liquids generated by metal finishing or the mineral processing industries. The toxic metals, probably existing in high concentrations must be effectively treated/removed from the wastewaters. If the wastewater were discharge into the sewerage system may effect negatively the subsequent biological wastewater treatment.Previous works also mentioned that the synthetic had higher efficiency in the removal of (Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Hg2+) than HAP. In this study present a new process for synthesis by using eggshell waste, historically a waste byproduct from the food products industry, for decrease the cost of sorbent. Carbonate hydroxylapatite samples were prepared as follows: the pretreated （washed and dried） eggshell wsate was ground and sieved into powder （30 mesh） at first. Then, the eggshell was added to H3PO4 aqueous in molar ratio 1:1, kept at 3040℃for 2 to 3 hours, under pH 13. Insoluble matter was separated and removed by filtration. Subsequently, Ca（OH）2 was added into the solution, kept at 5060℃for 24 h, adjusting pH 912 by NaOH, The adjusting pH to 7 by NH4Cl. At last, the suspension was dried and ground into powder manually （30 mesh） to get the sample. The sample was studied by Scan Electron Microscope and Energy Disperse Spectroscopy.The adsorption of heavy metals with was divided into two parts, including the adsorption to single heavy metal and the multi- metals at the same time. The effect of various parameters on adsorption process such as initial concentration of metal ions, solution pH, contact time, amount of CHAP and temperature were studied to optimize the conditions for maximum adsorption. The sorption isotherm, the dynamic and thermodynamic of process were study. Then the sample after the adsorption of heavy metals was studied by Scan Electron Microscope and Energy Disperse Spectroscopy.At last the desorption was studied with NaCl（0.2mol/L）, NaNO3（0.2mol/L）, HAC（pH=3.93）, HAC（pH=4.93）, CaCl2（0.05mol/L）, CaCl2（0.1mol/L） and ultrasonic to the sample of CHAP after adsorption the Zn2+.The present study showed that the CHAP was effective in removing Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ from aqueous solutions. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd2+ and Zn2+ by CHAP could reach 93% and 98.67% respectively, when the initial Cd2+ concentration 80mg/L and Zn2+ concentrarion 100mg/L and the solid/liquid ratio was 2.5g/L, and when solution pH and contact time was 6 and 67 and 1h and 45 min, respectively. The equilibrium sorption data for single metal systems at 40℃could be described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. At low pH the main mechanism between CHAP and metal ions are ion-exchange and surface adsorption. Possibly some precipitation of metal could occur at higher pH. The results showed that zinc adsorption on CHAP would be an endothermic process, and might occur more effectively at relatively high temperatures. The results of multi- heavy metals adsorption showed that the capacity adsorption less than single metal, which competitive for the active point. Desorption experiments showed that various extractant reagents were not efficient enough to desorb substantial amount of metal ions from the CHAP. The results obtained show that CHAP has a high affinity to heavy metals. Neddle-shaped minerals were found after adsorption heavy metals.
Controlled synthesis of inorganic materials of specific morphology, orientation, organization, complex form, and hierarchical structure has drawn a lot of attention in materials science, especially on the Layered double hydroxides （s）, a kind of new functional material. The strategy of using organic templates or modifiers with complex functionalization patterns to control the nucleation, growth, and alignment of crystals has been widely adapted for the synthesis of a variety of inorganic materials with complex forms. This dissertation focuses on the morphosynthesis of some inorganic materials assisted by organic additives, and the main results are as follows, and the XRD, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the material and its formation process theory.In the first parts, controlled synthesis of s was studied on the optimized parameters of process. Single drop method, double drips method, hydrothermal, gas liquid systems were involved to prepare LDHs. During the study, we found Hydrothermal System better than other methods, and the gas Liquid System was the worst one. Then the conclusion of alkaline also had a big effect on the growth of LDHs, when changed the alkaline between （NH4）2CO3, NaOH （Na2CO3）, urea, hexamethyleneteramine （HMT）. If the ethylene diamine tetra acetic salt （EDTA-Na） and ethanol was added to the combination system, ethanol takes a good job as a dispersion media.In the second part, added the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide （CTAB） to the system, the results showed that the CTAB system was a very effective crystal growth to guide the growth of LDH crystals to various morphologies with different reaction Conditions. By changing reaction conditions, such as the ratio of Ni/Al concentration,value , in the reaction temperature, time, especially, the rosette-like and spatulate-like NiAl- LDH crystals were synthesized, and the formation mechanism was related to the selective interaction between the organic-inorganic interfaces gained through carboxyl and Ni2+ , which resulted in preferential growth along some specific crystallographic directions. When increased with raising ageing temperature and time, the rosette-like LDH would like change to spatulate-like. And the formation of spatulate-like NiAl-LDHs crystals was ascribed to the directing of surfactant micelle.In the third part, crystallization of LDH was studied in another surfactant sodium alginate （SA）. The SA system could induce LDH crystals to spherical imaged in the SEM photos. Also with different reaction conditions the LDHs showed different from the tradition morphology. Moreover, and the spherical-like crystal has a virtue of high-temperature stability, because when baked the LDH to LDO, the shape of spherical does chance any more.In our work, as the precursor LDHs films were prepared with direction CTAB and SA, as we put forward the substitution by Ni in hydrotalcite layers to synthesize the film of NiAl-LDHs, which are potential precursors of catalysts for carbon fiber growth. Then, carbon fibers were synthesized via the catalytic chemical vapor deposition （CCVD） method over these catalysts in quartz reactor. As well as the growth mechanism of the LDHs films was also discussed. Different guiding agent in the same conditions, the LDH films gained different configuration, and affect the morphology of carbon fibers directly.
As one of the generalplastic,nylon-66 is a kind of polymer martial with high performance.Due to its excellent comprehensive properties,nylon-66 resin was used widely in those fields such as automobile、chemical、and electric appliance.However,the shortcomings including flammability of pure nylon-66 limit its further application.Therefore, to widen the application fields of nylon-66 resin,the performance of nylon-66 materials is generally improved by using the method of physical or chemical modification.Up to the present,the method of physical modification for nylon-66 is dominant,there is few reports on the study on the copolymer in which nylon-66 materials is key component.T -o get the designing polymer we start the molecular designing first,the fire-retardant structure was inserted into Nylon-66 through the copolycondensatin of the selfmading、diamid- ogen、nylon66 salts.Our major and creative research works are listed mainly as following:(1) Preparation and characterization of the reactive flame retardant The reactive flame retardant BCPPO was prepared though Friedel-Crafts and Oxidation, After detailed characterization of the polymers throughh FTIR and TG we proved that we get the prediction materials.(2) The synthesis and characterization of the phosphorus containing nylon-66The phosphorus containing nylon-66 were synthesized by the melt copolycondensatin,th -e influence of the temperature、time、pressure to nylon-66 were researched;Through the test of the viscosity-average molecular weight,the optimum reaction are also determined;The results of the infrared spectrometry showed that the fire-retardant structure was inserted into Nylon66 and the quantitative analysis was mensurated.(3) The influence of the fire-retardant structure to nylon-66 were revealed by a series of testingsThe properties(tensile strength、impact strength)、flame-retardant properties (oxygen index、the yield of char) were tested;The melt and weight loss of the polymer had been studied by TG、DSC;The carbonaceous layer and impact section had been investigated.The objective of the thesis is to synthesis the inherent flame retardant with phosphorus containing in there backbones.The effect of the flame resistand is improved when the properties of is keeping.
, one of the typical representatives of chiral materials, having been attracted more and more attention for the controllable and adjustable advantages such as composition, structure, morphology, permittivity parameter, permeability parameter and chiral parameters.Regular helical nanofibers are prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of acetylene with copper nanocrystals as a catalyst at the low temperature of 250℃. The copper nanocatalyst used in this study is obtained from the thermal decomposition of copper tartrate precursor. The morphologies of the fibers could be simply controlled by adjusting reaction temperature, calefaction speed, and the acetylene flow rate. could be known by TEM and SEM analysis that these helical nanofibers grown over single copper nanocrystal exhibited a mirror-symmetric growth mode: the two helical nanofibers had identical coil diameter, coil pitch, cycle number, and fiber diameter, but had absolutely opposite helical senses. The morphologies of the fibers could be changed in the processes of fibers growth, and the shape of copper nanocrystals changed from irregular (circular, oblong) to regular(rhombic, triangular, quadrangular, and polygonal) during the processes of fibers growth. The shape and dimension of the catalyst particles have a great influence on the morphology of the fibers. Helical structure is apt to generate over the catalyst particles with small dimension and shape regularity. The shape changes are caused by the changes in surface energy resulting from the acetylene-adsorption on the copper nanocrystals.The XRD, IR, and elemental analysis revealed that the chemical structure of helical fibers was a kind of poly(acetylene)-like polymer, and helical fibers were amorphous. The reaction proceeded mainly by the of acetylene over copper nanocrystals, accompanied by some side reactions. With increasing the reaction temperature, of the C/H ratio of helical fibers increased, but the chemical structure of helical fibers little changed.The as-prepared helical fibers are insulator, and exhibits room temperature (300K) ferromagnetic behavior.
Polyaniline（PANI）has elicited the most interest due to its wide range of conductivity from insulating to metallicregime,unique redox tunability,good environmental stability,low cost,ease of synthesis,and promising applications in various fields,such as metallic corrosion protection,electromagnetic interference shielding,electrostatic discharge,sensors and actuators,and etc.Chiral PANI nanotubes with rectangular hollow interiors doped with （1S）-（+）-10-camphorsulfonic acid（D-CSA）as a chiral dopant were synthesized without aid of any surfactant.These nanotubes have 80 to 600 nm in outer diameter and 30 to 125 nm in wall thickness.The sructures of the synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy（FTIR）, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies（UV-vis）and X-ray diffraction（XRD）.The four-probe conductivities ofnaotubes doped with CSA were 10-4～100 S/cm.The effects of different synthesis conditions on the morphologies of were analyzed,and the utmost conditions for synthesis of nanostructures were as follows:the concentration of aniline was 0.05-0.1 mol/L;the molar ratios of CSA to ANI,and ammonium persulfate（APS）to ANI were about 1/8～1 and 1.2, respectly;the temperature was maintained in the range of 0～5℃and the reaction time was 15 h.Several kinds of polyaniline micro/nanostructures,such as tubes, fibers,networks,sheets,spheres and stars,were synthesized with the adjusting of reaction conditions,including the concentration of aniline,doping acid and oxidant, the the kind of doping acid and mixing speed,in the aqueous solution system.Nanostructured networks of PANI with conductivity of 10-2～10-1S/cm were synthesized via in situ polymerization of aniline using ferric chloride and APS as the co-oxidant through a “template-free” method.The further results showed that the ferric chloride played the roles of restraining the formation of PANI nanofibers and acting as both of oxidant and dopant at the same time,and the morphology and conductivity of the nanostructures could be controlled by adjusting the dosage of FeCl3 or the molar ratios of APS to FeCl3.The room temperature electromagnetic properties of polyaniline and nanostructured networks were studied.The tests of the eletromagnetic parameters of polyaniline nanostructures were evaluated,and was found that polyaniline nanostructures exhibited dielectric loss and magnetic loss in the frequency range from 2 to 18 GHz.The electromagnetic absorption of polyaniline micro/nanostructures got well and the absorption peak shifted to low frequency with the ineases of molar ratios CSA to ANI.The maximal value of electromagnetic absorption was -19.1 dB at the frequency of 7.3 GHz.The dosage of FeCl3 was good for widening the frequency band and enhancing the reflectivity of polyzniline.
The partially delaminated Stearic Acid Montmorillonite (STA-MMT) was synthesized, using alkaline Ca- montmorillonite and Stearic acid(STA) as raw materials on the condition of circumfluence, water diversion and dispersion in organic solvent. Single factor analysis was performed to investigate the influences of the factors, such as the reaction time, the amount of Stearic acid, the dosage of ethanol in dispersant, the amount of solvent, the droping temperature of the STA solution, the anion exchange capacity(AEC) of the alkaline Ca-montmorillonite, and the partical size of the alkaline Ca-montmorillonite, upon the ignition loss test of organic STA-MMT clay. The optimumcondition was achieved: add dropwise 60mL haxmethylene alkyl solution of Stearic acid(4.50g) into a large beaker, which contains 5.00g 0.076mm alkaline Ca-montmorillonite and 75mL mixed anhydrous solution at 50℃; the anhydrous solution is mixed by haxmethylene alkyl and absolute alcohol with volume ratio of 9: 1. The organic content of the prepared product was about 36.25%.With tools such as XRD, FTIR, SEM, TG/ DTA and DTS, is confirmed that: the Stearic acid anion is intercalated in the layer; the MMT is partially delaminated as the d-spacing enlarges; the dispersibility of STA-MMT reaches the scale of 300nm in the solvent of ethanol. In comparison with montmorillonite modified by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, this partially delaminated Stearic acid montmorillonite has such merits like: better gel properties, larger surface area, smaller partical size and better dispersibility in most of organic dissolvents.Furthermore, using partially delaminated Stearic acid montmorillonite as a precursor, hydrophobic /stearic acid montmorillonite( / STA-MMT) was prepared by introducing hydrophobic wax into the hydrophobic phased interlayer of partially delaminated Stearic acid montmorillonite. Through single-factor analysis, the optimum condition was obtained: at 55℃, add 5.00g wax into a large beaker, which contains 3.00g STA-MMT and 200mL mixed anhydrous solution of haxmethylene alkyl and absolute alcohol ( V_A: V_H=1 : 9), then stir for thermostat reactions over 5 hours. The organic content of the prepared wax/STA-MMT is 71.55%, with 36.30% contributed by wax. XRD and DSC means were used to study the structure and melting point of wax/STA-MMT. Through s is shown that good compatibility exists between STA-MMT and wax; meanwhile the melting point of wax increased by 60.7℃.
The natural macromolecular plantvera L.with abundant source and cheap price was selected in this dissertation,and its flocculating performance was studied.Aloe gel, polysaccharide and powder were prepared,and the techniques of extraction of polysaccharides from aloe were studied.The contents of polysaccharide extracted by technique of alcoholic sedimentation at room temperature is 12.27%,highest ratio in this experiment.The flocculants prepared above were studied,and flocculation tests were carried on to kaolin simulated water sample prepared in the laboratory,with the method of stirring in beakers.The results indicate that aloe gel has the best flocculation effect to the sample prepared,and the removal ratio of turbidity is 99.08%,the optimum dosage of aloe gel is 0.75mg/L.The influence of different factors on flocculation effect of aloe gel were studied.Aloe gel has an extensive applicable pH range,the removal ratio of turbidity reach up to 92%when the pH of water sample is between 3 and 11,and the flocculation effect of aloe to high turbidity sample is better than to low turbidity sample.Compared with Fe2（SO4）3,PFS and PAM,the results indicate that aloe has a good flocculation effect,with characteristics of low dosage,high sedimentation velocity of flocs, thick floes.Compounded with Fe2（SO4）3,PFS and PAM separately,the results indicate that aloe compounded with Fe2（SO4）3 has the best effect,the removal ratio of turbidity is 99.12%, the optimum dosage of aloe is 1.68mg/L,and that of Fe2（SO4）3 is 20mg/L.Practical application of aloe was studied preliminarily,and the waste water of the YouYi River in Nanjing University of Science and Technology was treated.The results indicate that aloe has a good effect to the turbidity removal,and COD is also decreased.The removal ratio of turbidity is 93.44%and the removal ratio of COD is 64.34%,when aloe is compounded with Fe2（SO4）3 and the dosage of aloe gel is 4 mg/L,the dosage of Fe2（SO4）3 is 15mg/L.The stabilization of aloe gel was studied preliminarily.The results show that aloe gel can be preserved for 18 days when treated by potassium sorbate,citric acid,and adsorpted by active carbon,under the condition of refrigerated storage.The removal ratio of turbidity still keeps above 90%after stabilizing treatment and storaged for 14 days,which indicates that aloe keeps a good flocculation activity.
Carbon membranes are a new type of membrane materials featuring with molecular sieving property,which are mainly prepared by pyrolysis of polymers as precursors. Compared with polymeric membranes,carbon membranes have broad prospects in gas separation for possessing numerous advantages,such as high gas separation factor,good thermal resistance and chemical inertness.Carbon membranes can be divided into two categories:homogeneous and composite.The carbon composite membranes have attracted much attention recently because of their highstrength.But the materials for the carbon membrane supports are usually high cost,which restricts the development and application of carbon composite membranes.Therefore, is necessary to research and development low cost supports for the industrialization of carbon composite membranes.In this paper,coal based plate carbon membrane supports have been prepared by anthracite with blender and bituminous coal.The effect of processing parameters such as binder type,molding pressure,pre-oxidation temperature and pre-oxidation time on the performance of coal-based carbon membrane supports has been investigated,the technology route to prepare the coal-based carbon membrane supports has also been designed.The results show that the coal-based carbon membrane supports prepared with different metamorphic grade coals have different pore structure characteristics,the anthracite-based carbon membrane supports have a wide pore size distribution and a high gas permeation rate,but the largest pore diameter is larger,however,the bituminous coal-based carbon membrane supports have a narrow pore size distribution and the largest pore diameter is smaller.Hence the bituminous coal-based carbon membrane supports are more suitable to prepare carbon composite membranes.The plate carbon composite membranes have been prepared by spin-coating the PMDA-ODA polyamic acid（PAA）on the coal-based membrane supports.The effect of support property,spin coating technology,blending the surfactant in PAA and the pretreatment of the membrane support on the gas separation performances of carbon composite membranes has been investigated.Scanning electron microscope has also been employed to characterize the microstructure of the carbon composite membranes.The results indicate that the carbon composite membranes with high performances can be prepared by controlling spin coating technology.The surfactant showed the function of improving the composite between carbon plate and PAA,Carbon composite membranes with the suffactant additive reaching molecular sieving need only one time by spin-coating.The pre-immersing treatment on anthracite supports can greatly improve the gas permeation rate of the anthracite-based carbon composite membranes.For the bituminous coal-based carbon composite membranes,the selectivities of H2/N2,CO2/N2,O2/N2 are 94.3,18.3,10.2 respectively,and the selectivity for O2/N2 of air is 10.8 with the O2 permeation rate of 4.99×10-9mol·m·-2·S-1.Pa-1and the O2 concentration can reach 74.4%by one time enrichment.
s as novel porous inorganic membranes are usually prepared by carbonization of carbonaceous materials. s can be applied in many fields such as chemical production separation,gas separation,membrane reaction etc,because of their thermal and chemical stability in non-oxidizing atmosphere.However most of carbon membrane precursors are commercially expensive which may greatly limit the commercial application of carbon membranes.Therefore, is necessary to search a low cost precursor to prepare carbon membranes. has several advantages as the precursor for carbon membranes because of its low cost and aromatic structure,which is dominated by polycyclic as well as monocyclic aromatic ring system. -based tubular carbon membranes have been prepared in carbon research laboratory of dalian university of technology since 1995.A -based tubular carbon membrane with high flux,high porosity and narrow pore size distribution was prepared with CMC and anthracitic coal.However its low strength may greatly limit the commercial application of coal-based carbon membranes. Therefore, is necessary to prepare a high strength coal-based tubular carbon membrane.In this paper,the procedure for producing high strength coal-based tubular carbon membranes with CMC as binder through mixing short carbon fibre,bituminous coal and anthracite coal was presented.TG,XRD and SEM were employed to study the reinforce mechanism.Effect of processing parameters such as the ratio of bituminous coal and short carbon fibre,carbonization temperature on the strength and pore structure of coal-based carbon membranes was investigated.The results show that bituminous coal and short carbon fibre can improve the strength of coal-based carbon membranes significantly.When the bituminous coal’s mass fraction up to 50%the compressive strength of carbon membranes was twice stronger than it used to be,and the detonation strength exceeded 5MPa.Short carbon fibre can improve the impact strength and rich the pore structure of coal-based carbon membranes.The impact strength of carbon membranes was enhanced from 1.03 KJ/m2 to 4.14 KJ/m2 after the carbon fibre was mixed in.Bituminous coal can improve the composite between short carbon fiber and coal-based carbon membranes.In this work,two different coal-based tubular carbon membranes（bituminous coal carbon membrane and mixed coal carbon membrane）have been served as the supports of C/C composite membranes for gas separation.The supports were then coated with Polyethersulfoneketone（PPESK）by dip-coating and pyrolyzed to prepare the C/C composite membranes.The results show that the pore structure of the supports have marked effect on the separation characteristic of the composite membranes.The selectivities of mixed coal support C/C composite membrane with H2/N2,O2/N2,CO2/N2 were 23.68,3.93,8.97 respectively after dip-coating four times.The selectivities of bituminous coal support C/C composite membrane with H2/N2,O2/N2,CO2/N2 were 104.70,13.66,21.80 respectively after dip-coating twice.